Utah Department of Administrative Services Division of Administrative Rules

File No. 34076

This rule was published in the October 1, 2010, issue (Vol. 2010, No. 19) of the Utah State Bulletin.


Tax Commission, Auditing

Section R865-6F-8

Allocation and Apportionment of Net Income (Uniform Division of Income for Tax Purposes Act) Pursuant to Utah Code Ann. Sections 59-7-302 through 59-7-321

Notice of Proposed Rule

(Amendment)

DAR File No.: 34076
Filed: 09/15/2010 10:08:26 AM

RULE ANALYSIS

Purpose of the rule or reason for the change:

The proposed amendment is necessary to implement S.B. 165 from the 2010 General Session. (DAR NOTE: S.B. 165 (2010) is found at Chapter 155, Laws of Utah 2010, and was effective 05/11/2010.)

Summary of the rule or change:

The proposed amendment indicates how a sales factor weighted taxpayer shall apply the single sales factor apportionment, during the phase-in period of that apportionment method, if a factor is missing.

State statutory or constitutional authorization for this rule:

  • Sections 59-7-302 through 59-7-321

Anticipated cost or savings to:

the state budget:

None--Any fiscal impact would have been taken into account in S.B. 165 (2010).

local governments:

None--Any fiscal impact would have been taken into account in S.B. 165 (2010).

small businesses:

None--Any fiscal impact would have been taken into account in S.B. 165 (2010).

persons other than small businesses, businesses, or local governmental entities:

None--Any fiscal impact would have been taken into account in S.B. 165 (2010).

Compliance costs for affected persons:

None--The amendments provide guidance on using the single sales factor during the phase-in period of that apportionment method.

Comments by the department head on the fiscal impact the rule may have on businesses:

None anticipated.

Michael Cragun, Commissioner

The full text of this rule may be inspected, during regular business hours, at the Division of Administrative Rules, or at:

Tax Commission
Auditing
210 N 1950 W
SALT LAKE CITY, UT 84134

Direct questions regarding this rule to:

  • Michael Cragun at the above address, by phone at 801-297-3907, by FAX at 801-297-3919, or by Internet E-mail at mcragun@utah.gov

Interested persons may present their views on this rule by submitting written comments to the address above no later than 5:00 p.m. on:

11/15/2010

This rule may become effective on:

11/22/2010

Authorized by:

R. Bruce Johnson, Tax Commission Chair

RULE TEXT

R865. Tax Commission, Auditing.

R865-6F. Franchise Tax.

R865-6F-8. Allocation and Apportionment of Net Income (Uniform Division of Income for Tax Purposes Act) Pursuant to Utah Code Ann. Sections 59-7-302 through 59-7-321.

(1) Definitions.

(a) "Allocation" means the assignment of nonbusiness income to a particular state.

(b) "Apportionment" means the division of business income between states by the use of a formula containing apportionment factors.

(c) "Base of operations" means the place of more or less permanent nature from which the employee starts work and to which the employee customarily returns in order to receive instructions from the taxpayer or communications from customers or other persons, or to replenish stock or other materials, repair equipment, or perform any other function necessary to the exercise of his trade or profession at some other point or points.

(d) "Business activity" refers to the transactions and activities occurring in the regular course of a particular trade or business of a taxpayer, or to the acquisition, management, and disposition of property that constitute integral parts of the taxpayer's regular trade or business operations.

(e) "Business income" means income of any type or class, and from any activity, that meets the relationship described in Subsection (2)(b), the transactional test, or Subsection (2)(c), the functional test. The classification of income by the labels occasionally used, such as manufacturing income, compensation for services, sales income, interest, dividends, rents, royalties, gains, operating income, and nonoperating income is of no aid in determining whether income is business or nonbusiness income.

(f) "Compensation" means wages, salaries, commissions, and any other form of remuneration paid to employees for personal services.

(g) "Employee" means an:

(i) officer of a corporation; or

(ii) individual who, under the usual common law rules applicable in determining the employer-employee relationship, has the status of an employee.

(h) "Gross receipts" are the gross amounts realized (the sum of money and the fair market value of other property or services received) on the sale or exchange of property, the performance of services, or the use of property or capital (including rents, royalties, interest and dividends) in a transaction that produces business income, in which the income or loss is recognized (or would be recognized if the transaction were in the United States) under the Internal Revenue Code. Amounts realized on the sale or exchange or property are not reduced for the cost of goods sold or the basis of property sold.

(i) Gross receipts, even if business income, do not include such items as, for example:

(A) repayment, maturity, or redemption of the principal of a loan, bond, or mutual fund or certificate of deposit or similar marketable instrument;

(B) the principal amount received under a repurchase agreement or other transaction properly characterized as a loan;

(C) proceeds from issuance of the taxpayer's own stock or from sale of treasury stock;

(D) damages and other amounts received as the result of litigation;

(E) property acquired by an agent on behalf of another;

(F) tax refunds and other tax benefit recoveries;

(G) pension reversions;

(H) contributions to capital (except for sales of securities by securities dealers);

(I) income from forgiveness of indebtedness; or

(J) amounts realized from exchanges of inventory that are not recognized by the Internal Revenue Code.

(ii) Exclusion of an item from the definition of "gross receipts" is not determinative of its character as business or nonbusiness income. Nothing in this definition shall be construed to modify, impair or supersede any provision of Subsection (11).

(i) "Nonbusiness income" means all income other than business income.

(j) "Place from which the service is directed or controlled" means the place from which the power to direct or control is exercised by the taxpayer.

(k) "Taxpayer" means a corporation as defined in Section 59-7-101.

(l) "To contribute materially" includes being used operationally in the taxpayer's trade or business. Whether property contributes materially is not determined by reference to the property's value or percentage of use. If an item of property contributes materially to the taxpayer's trade or business, the attributes, rights, or components of that property are also operationally used in that business. However, property that is held for mere financial betterment is not operationally used in the taxpayer's trade or business.

(m) "Trade or business" means the unitary business of the taxpayer, part of which is conducted within Utah.

(2) Business and Nonbusiness Income.

(a) Apportionment and Allocation. Section 59-7-303 requires that every item of income be classified as either business income or nonbusiness income. Income for purposes of classification as business or nonbusiness includes gains and losses. Business income is apportioned among jurisdictions by use of a formula. Nonbusiness income is specifically assigned or allocated to one or more specific jurisdictions pursuant to express rules. An item of income is classified as business income if it falls within the definition of business income. An item of income is nonbusiness income only if it does not meet the definitional requirements for being classified as business income.

(b) Transactional Test. Business income includes income arising from transactions and activity in the regular course of the taxpayer's trade or business.

(i) If the transaction or activity is in the regular course of the taxpayer's trade or business, part of which trade or business is conducted within the state, the resulting income of the transaction or activity is business income for Utah purposes. Income may be business income even though the actual transaction or activity that gives rise to the income does not occur in this state.

(ii) For a transaction or activity to be in the regular course of the taxpayer's trade or business, the transaction or activity need not be one that frequently occurs in the trade or business. Most, but not all, frequently occurring transactions or activities will be in the regular course of that trade or business and will, therefore, satisfy the transactional test. It is sufficient to classify a transaction or activity as being in the regular course of a trade or business if it is reasonable to conclude transactions of that type are customary in the kind of trade or business being conducted, or are within the scope of what that kind of trade or business does. However, even if a taxpayer frequently or customarily engages in investment activities, if those activities are for the taxpayer's mere financial betterment rather than for the operations of the trade or business, those activities do not satisfy the transactional test. The transactional test includes income from sales of inventory, property held for sale to customers, and services commonly sold by the trade or business. The transactional test also includes income from the sale of property used in the production of business income of a kind that is sold and replaced with some regularity, even if replaced less frequently than once a year.

(c) Functional Test. Business income also includes income from tangible and intangible property if the acquisition, management, and disposition of the property constitute integral parts of the taxpayer's regular trade or business operations.

(i) The following definitions apply to this Subsection (2)(c).

(A) "Acquisition" means the act of obtaining an interest in property.

(B) "Disposition" means the act, or the power, of relinquishing or transferring an interest in or control over property to another, either in whole or in part.

(C) "Integral part" means property that constitutes a part of the composite whole of the trade or business, each part of which gives value to every other part, in a manner that materially contributes to the production of business income.

(D) "Management" means the oversight, direction, or control, whether directly or by delegation, of the property for the use or benefit of the trade or business.

(E) "Property" includes an interest in, control over, or use of property, whether the interest is held directly, beneficially, by contract, or otherwise, that materially contributes to the production of business income.

(ii) Under the functional test, business income need not be derived from transactions or activities that are in the regular course of the taxpayer's own particular trade or business. It is sufficient, if the property from which the income is derived is or was an integral, functional, or operative component used in the taxpayer's trade or business operations, or otherwise materially contributed to the production of business income of the trade or business, part of which trade or business is or was conducted within the state. Property that has been converted to nonbusiness use through the passage of a sufficiently lengthy period of time, generally five years, or that has been removed as an operational asset and is instead held by the taxpayer's trade or business exclusively for investment purposes, has lost its character as a business asset and is not subject to this subsection. Property that was an integral part of the trade or business is not considered converted to investment purposes merely because it is placed for sale.

(iii) Income that is derived from isolated sales, leases, assignments, licenses, and other infrequently occurring dispositions, transfers, or transactions involving property, including transactions made in liquidation or the winding-up of business, is business income if the property is or was used in the taxpayer's trade or business operations.

(A) Property that has been converted to nonbusiness use has lost its character as a business asset and is not subject to Subsection (2)(c)(iii).

(B) Income from the licensing of an intangible asset, such as a patent, copyright, trademark, service mark, know-how, trade secrets, or the like, that was developed or acquired for use by the taxpayer in its trade or business operations, constitutes business income whether or not the licensing itself constituted the operation of a trade or business, and whether or not the taxpayer remains in the same trade or business from or for which the intangible asset was developed or acquired.

(iv) Under the functional test, income from intangible property is business income when the intangible property serves an operational function as opposed to solely an investment function. The relevant inquiry focuses on whether the property is or was held in furtherance of the taxpayer's trade or business, that is, on the objective characteristics of the intangible property's use or acquisition and its relation to the taxpayer and the taxpayer's activities. The functional test is not satisfied where the holding of the property is limited to solely an investment function as is the case where the holding of the property is limited to mere financial betterment of the taxpayer in general.

(v) If the property is or was held in furtherance of the taxpayer's trade or business beyond mere financial betterment, income from that property may be business income even though the actual transaction or activity involving the property that gives rise to the income does not occur in this state.

(vi) If with respect to an item of property a taxpayer takes a deduction from business income that is apportioned to this state, or includes the original cost in the property factor, it is presumed that the item of property is or was integral to the taxpayer's trade or business operations. No presumption arises from the absence of any of these actions.

(vii) Application of the functional test is generally unaffected by the form of the property, whether tangible or intangible, real or personal. Income arising from an intangible interest, for example, corporate stock or other intangible interest in a business or a group of assets, is business income when the intangible itself or the property underlying or associated with the intangible is or was an integral, functional, or operative component of the taxpayer's trade or business operations.

(A) Property that has been converted to nonbusiness use has lost its character as a business asset and is not subject to this Subsection (2)(c)(vii).

(B) While apportionment of income derived from transactions involving intangible property as business income may be supported by a finding that the issuer of the intangible property and the taxpayer are engaged in the same trade or business, that is, the same unitary business, establishment of that relationship is not the exclusive basis for concluding that the income is subject to apportionment.

(C) It is sufficient to support the finding of apportionable income if the holding of the intangible interest served an operational rather than an investment function of mere financial betterment.

(d) Relationship of Transactional Test and Functional Tests to the United States Constitution.

(i) The due process clause and the commerce clause of the United States Constitution restrict states from apportioning income as business income that has no rational relationship with the taxing state. The protection against extra-territorial state taxation afforded by these clauses is often described as the unitary business principle. The unitary business principle requires apportionable income to be derived from the same unitary business that is being conducted as least in part in the state.

(ii) The unitary business conducted in this state includes both a unitary business that the taxpayer alone may be conducting and a unitary business the taxpayer may conduct with any other person. Satisfaction of either the transactional test or the functional test complies with the unitary business principle, because each test requires that the transaction or activity, in the case of the transactional test, or the property, in the case of the functional test, to be tied to the same trade or business that is conducted within the state. Determination of the scope of the unitary business conducted in the state is without regard to the extent to which this state requires or permits combined reporting.

(e) Business and Nonbusiness Income Application of Definitions.

(i) Rents From Real and Tangible Personal Property. Rental income from real and tangible property is business income if the property with respect to which the rental income was received is or was used in the taxpayer's trade or business and therefore is includable in the property factor under Subsection (8)(a)(i). Property that has been converted to nonbusiness use has lost its character as a business asset and is not subject to this subsection.

(ii) Gains or Losses From Sales of Assets. Gain or loss from the sale, exchange, or other disposition of real property or of tangible or intangible personal property constitutes business income if the property while owned by the taxpayer was used in, or was otherwise included in the property factor of the taxpayer's trade or business. However, if the property was utilized for the production of nonbusiness income or it was previously included in the property factor and later removed from the property factor before its sale, exchange, or other disposition, the gain or loss constitutes nonbusiness income. See Subsection (8)(a)(ii).

(iii) Interest. Interest income is business income where the intangible with respect to which the interest was received arises out of or was created in the regular course of the taxpayer's trade or business operations, or where the purpose for acquiring and holding the intangible is an integral, functional, or operative component of the taxpayer's trade or business operations, or otherwise materially contributes to the production of business income of the trade or business operations.

(iv) Dividends. Dividends are business income where the stock with respect to which the dividends were received arose out of or was acquired in the regular course of the taxpayer's trade or business operations or where the acquiring and holding of the stock is an integral, functional, or operative component of the taxpayer's trade or business operations, or otherwise materially contributes to the production of business income of the trade or business operations.

(v) Patent and Copyright Royalties. Patent and copyright royalties are business income where the patent or copyright with respect to which the royalties were received arose out of or was created in the regular course of the taxpayer's trade or business operations or where the acquiring and holding of the patent or copyright is an integral, functional, or operational component of the taxpayer's trade or business operations, or otherwise materially contributes to the production of business income of the trade or business operations.

(vi) Proration of Deductions. In most cases, an allowable deduction of a taxpayer will be applicable only to the business income arising from a particular trade or business or to a particular item of nonbusiness income. In some cases, an allowable deduction may be applicable to the business incomes of more than one trade or business or several items of nonbusiness income. In those cases, the deduction shall be prorated among those trades or businesses and those items of nonbusiness income in a manner that fairly distributes the deduction among the classes of income to which it is applicable.

(f)(i) A schedule must be submitted with the return showing the:

(A) gross income from each class of income being allocated;

(B) amount of each class of applicable expenses, together with explanation or computations showing how amounts were arrived at;

(C) total amount of the applicable expenses for each income class; and

(D) net income of each income class.

(ii) The schedule shall indicate items of income and expenses allocated both to the state and outside the state.

(g) Year to Year Consistency. In filing returns with the state, if the taxpayer departs from or modifies the manner of prorating any deduction used in returns for prior years in a material way, the taxpayer shall disclose in the return for the current year the nature and extent of the modification.

(h) State to State Consistency. If the returns or reports filed by a taxpayer with all states to which the taxpayer reports under the Uniform Division of Income for Tax Purposes Act are not uniform in the application or proration of any deduction, the taxpayer shall disclose in its return to this state the nature and extent of any material variance.

(3) Unitary Business.

(a) Unitary Business Principle.

(i) The Concept of a Unitary Business. A unitary business is a single economic enterprise that is made up of either separate parts of a single business entity or a group of business entities related through common ownership that are sufficiently interdependent, integrated and interrelated through their activities so as to provide a synergy and mutual benefit that produces a sharing or exchange of value among them and a significant flow of value to the separate parts. This flow of value to a business entity located in this state that comes from being part of a unitary business conducted both within and without the state is what provides the constitutional due process definite link and minimum connection necessary for the state to apportion business income of the unitary business, even if that income arises in part [form]from activities conducted outside the state. The business income of the unitary business is then apportioned to this state using an apportionment percentage provided by Section 59-7-311. This sharing or exchange of value may also be described as requiring that the operation of one part of the business be dependent upon, or contribute to, the operation of another part of the business. Phrased in the disjunctive, the foregoing means that if the activities of one business either contribute to the activities of another business or are dependent upon the activities of another business, those businesses are part of a unitary business.

(ii) Constitutional Requirement for a Unitary Business. The sharing or exchange of value described in Subsection (3)(a)(i) that defines the scope of a unitary business requires more than the mere flow of funds arising out of a passive investment or from the financial strength contributed by a distinct business undertaking that has no operational relationship to the unitary business. In this state, the unitary business principle shall be applied to the fullest extent allowed by the United States Constitution. The unitary business principle shall not be applied to result in the combination of business activities or entities under circumstances where, if it were adverse to the taxpayer, the combination of those activities or entities would not be allowed by the United States Constitution.

(iii) Separate Trades or Businesses Conducted Within a Single Entity. A single entity may have more than one unitary business. In those cases, it is necessary to determine the business, or apportionable, income attributable to each separate unitary business as well as its nonbusiness income, which is specifically allocated. The business income of each unitary business is then apportioned by a formula that takes into consideration the in-state and out-of-state factors that relate to the respective unitary business whose income is being apportioned.

(iv) Unitary Business Unaffected by Formal Business Organization. A unitary business may exist within a single business entity or among a group of business entities related through common ownership, as defined in Section 59-7-101.

(b) Determination of a Unitary Business.

(i) A unitary business is characterized by significant flows of value evidenced by factors such as those described in Mobil Oil Corp. v. Vermont, 445 US 425 (1980): functional integration, centralization of management, and economies of scale. These factors provide evidence of whether the business activities operate as an integrated whole or exhibit substantial mutual interdependence. Facts suggesting the presence of the factors mentioned above should be analyzed in combination for their cumulative effect and not in isolation. A particular characteristic of a business operation may be suggestive of one or more of the factors mentioned above.

(ii) Description and Illustration of Functional Integration, Centralization of Management, and Economies of Scale.

(A) Functional Integration. Functional integration refers to transfers between, or pooling among, business activities that significantly affect the operation of the business activities. Functional integration includes transfers or pooling with respect to the unitary business's products or services, technical information, marketing information, distribution systems, purchasing, and intangibles such as patents, trademarks, service marks, copyrights, trade secrets, know-how, formulas, and processes. There is no specific type of functional integration that must be present. The following is a list of examples of business operations that support the finding of functional integration. The order of the list does not establish a hierarchy of importance.

(I) Sales, Exchanges, or Transfers. Sales, exchanges, or transfers (collectively "sales") of products, services, and intangibles between business activities provide evidence of functional integration. The significance of the intercompany sales to the finding of functional integration will be affected by the character of what is sold and the percentage of total sales or purchases represented by the intercompany sales. For example, sales among business entities that are part of a vertically integrated unitary business are indicative of functional integration. Functional integration is not negated by the use of a readily determinable market price to [effect]affect the intercompany sales, because those sales can represent an assured market for the seller or an assured source of supply for the purchaser.

(II) Common Marketing. The sharing of common marketing features among business entities is an indication of functional integration when the marketing results in significant mutual advantage. Common marketing exists when a substantial portion of the business entities' products, services, or intangibles are distributed or sold to a common customer, when the business entities use a common trade name or other common identification, or when the business entities seek to identify themselves to their customers as a member of the same enterprise. The use of a common advertising agency or a commonly owned or controlled in-house advertising office does not by itself establish common marketing that is suggestive of functional integration. That activity, however, is relevant to determining the existence of economies of scale and centralization of management.

(III) Transfer or Pooling of Technical Information or Intellectual Property. Transfers or pooling of technical information or intellectual property, such as patents, copyrights, trademarks and service marks, trade secrets, processes or formulas, know-how, research, or development provide evidence of functional integration when the matter transferred is significant to the businesses' operations.

(IV) Common Distribution System. Use of a common distribution system by the business entities, under which inventory control and accounting, storage, trafficking, or transportation are controlled through a common network provides evidence of functional integration.

(V) Common Purchasing. Common purchasing of substantial quantities of products, services, or intangibles from the same source by the business entities, particularly where the purchasing results in significant cost savings and is significant to each entity's operations or sales, provides evidence of functional integration.

(VI) Common or Intercompany Financing. Significant common or intercompany financing, including the guarantee by, or the pledging of the credit of, one or more business entities for the benefit of another business entity or entities provides evidence of functional integration, if the financing activity serves an operational purpose of both borrower and lender. Lending that serves an investment purpose of the lender does not necessarily provide evidence of functional integration.

(B) Centralization of Management. Centralization of management exists when directors, officers, and other management employees jointly participate in the management decisions that affect the respective business activities and that may also operate to the benefit of the entire economic enterprise. Centralization of management can exist whether the centralization is effected from a parent entity to a subsidiary entity, from a subsidiary entity to a parent entity, from one subsidiary entity to another, from one division within a single business entity to another division within a business entity, or from any combination of the foregoing. Centralization of management may exist even when day-to-day management responsibility and accountability has been decentralized, so long as the management has an ongoing operational role with respect to the business activities. An operational role may be effected through mandates, consensus building, or an overall operational strategy of the business, or any other mechanism that establishes joint management.

(I) Facts Providing Evidence of Centralization of Management. Evidence of centralization of management is provided when common officers participate in the decisions relating to the business operations of the different segments. Centralization of management may exist when management shares or applies knowledge and expertise among the parts of the business. Existence of common officers and directors, while relevant to a showing of centralization of management, does not alone provide evidence of centralization of management. Common officers are more likely to provide evidence of centralization of management than are common directors.

(II) Stewardship Distinguished. Centralized efforts to fulfill stewardship oversight are not evidence of centralization of management. Stewardship oversight consists of those activities that any owner would take to review the performance of or safeguard an investment. Stewardship oversight is distinguished from those activities that an owner may take to enhance value by integrating one or more significant operating aspects of one business activity with the other business activities of the owner. For example, implementing reporting requirements or mere approval of capital expenditures may evidence only stewardship oversight.

(C) Economies of Scale. Economies of scale refers to a relation among and between business activities resulting in a significant decrease in the average per unit cost of operational or administrative functions due to the increase in operational size. Economies of scale may exist from the inherent cost savings that arise from the presence of functional integration or centralization of management. The following are examples of business operations that support the finding of economies of scale. The order of the list does not establish a hierarchy of importance.

(I) Centralized Purchasing. Centralized purchasing designed to achieve savings due to the volume of purchases, the timing of purchases, or the interchangeability of purchased items among the parts of the business engaging in the purchasing provides evidence of economies of scale.

(II) Centralized Administrative Functions. The performance of traditional corporate administrative functions, such as legal services, payroll services, pension and other employee benefit administration, in common among the parts of the business may result in some degree of economies of scale. A business entity that secures savings in the performance of corporate administrative services due to its affiliation with other business entities that it would not otherwise reasonably be able to secure on its own because of its size, financial resources, or available market provides evidence of economies of scale.

(c) Indicators of a Unitary Business.

(i) Business activities that are in the same general line of business generally constitute a single unitary business, as for example, a multistate grocery chain.

(ii) Business activities that are part of different steps in a vertically structured business almost always constitute a single unitary business. For example, a business engaged in the exploration, development, extraction, and processing of a natural resource and the subsequent sale of a product based upon the extracted natural resource, is engaged in a single unitary business, regardless of the fact that the various steps in the process are operated substantially independently of each other with only general supervision from the business's executive offices.

(iii) Business activities that might otherwise be considered as part of more than one unitary business may constitute one unitary business when the factors outlined in Subsection (3)(b) are present. For example, some businesses conducting diverse lines of business may properly be considered as engaged in only one unitary business when the central executive officers are actively involved in the operations of the various business activities and there are centralized offices that perform for the business the normal matters a truly independent business would perform for itself, such as personnel, purchasing, advertising, or financing.

(4) Apportionment and Allocation.

(a)(i) If the business activity with respect to the trade or business of a taxpayer occurs both within and without this state, and if by reason of that business activity the taxpayer is taxable in another state, the portion of the net income (or net loss) arising from the trade or business derived from sources within this state shall be determined by apportionment in accordance with Sections 59-7-311 to 59-7-319.

(ii) For purposes of determining the fraction by which business income shall be apportioned to this state under Section 59-7-311:

(A) Except as provided in Subsection (4)(a)(ii)(B), if a taxpayer does not make an election to double weight the sales factor under Subsection 59-7-311[(3)](2)(d) and one or more of the factors listed in Subsection 59-7-311(2)[(a)](c) is missing, the fraction by which business income shall be apportioned to the state shall be determined by adding the factors present and dividing that sum by the number of factors present.

(B) If a taxpayer has made an election to double weight the sales factor under Section 59-7-311[(3)](2)(c) and if the sales factor is present, the denominator of the fraction described in Subsection (4)(a)(ii)(A) shall be increased by one.

(C) For a taxable year that begins on or after January 1, 2011, but begins on or before December 31, 2011, in the case of a sales factor weighted taxpayer, if one or more of the factors listed in Subsection 59-7-311(3)(a)(i) is missing and if the sales factor is present, the fraction by which business income shall be apportioned to the state shall be determined by adding the factors as provided in Subsection 59-7-311(3)(a)(i), and dividing that sum by the denominator, indicated in Subsection 59-7-311(3)(a)(ii), reduced by the number of missing factors.

(D) For a taxable year that begins on or after January 1, 2012, but begins on or before December 31, 2012, in the case of a sales factor weighted taxpayer, if one or more of the factors listed in Subsection 59-7-311(3)(b)(i) is missing and if the sales factor is present, the fraction by which business income shall be apportioned to the state shall be determined by adding the factors as provided in Subsection 59-7-311(3)(b)(i), and dividing that sum by the denominator, indicated in Subsection 59-7-311(3)(b)(ii), reduced by the number of missing factors.

(b) Allocation. Any taxpayer subject to the taxing jurisdiction of this state shall allocate all of its nonbusiness income or loss within or without this state in accordance with Sections 59-7-306 to 59-7-310.

(5) Consistency and Uniformity in Reporting. In filing returns with this state, if the taxpayer departs from or modifies the manner in which income has been classified as business income or nonbusiness income in returns for prior years, the taxpayer shall disclose in the return for the current year the nature and extent of the modification. If the returns or reports filed by a taxpayer for all states to which the taxpayer reports under UDITPA are not uniform in the classification of income as business or nonbusiness income, the taxpayer shall disclose in its return to this state the nature and extent of the variance.

(6) Taxable in Another State.

(a) In General. Under Section 59-7-303 the taxpayer is subject to the allocation and apportionment provisions of UDITPA if it has income from business activity that is taxable both within and without this state. A taxpayer's income from business activity is taxable without this state if the taxpayer, by reason of business activity (i.e., the transactions and activity occurring in the regular course of the trade or business), is taxable in another state within the meaning of Section 59-7-305. A taxpayer is taxable within another state if it meets either one of two tests:

(i) if by reason of business activity in another state the taxpayer is subject to one of the types of taxes specified in Section 59-7-305(1), namely: a net income tax, a franchise tax measured by net income, a franchise tax for the privilege of doing business, or a corporate stock tax; or

(ii) if by reason of business activity another state has jurisdiction to subject the taxpayer to a net income tax, regardless of whether the state imposes that tax on the taxpayer. A taxpayer is not taxable in another state with respect to the trade or business merely because the taxpayer conducts activities in that state pertaining to the production of nonbusiness income or business activities relating to a separate trade or business.

(b) When a Taxpayer Is Subject to a Tax Under Section 59-7-305. A taxpayer is subject to one of the taxes specified in Section 59-7-305(1) if it carries on business activity in a state and that state imposes such a tax thereon. Any taxpayer that asserts that it is subject to one of the taxes specified in Section 59-7-305(1) in another state shall furnish to the Tax Commission, upon its request, evidence to support that assertion. The Tax Commission may request that the evidence include proof that the taxpayer has filed the requisite tax return in the other state and has paid any taxes imposed under the law of the other state. The taxpayer's failure to produce that proof may be taken into account in determining whether the taxpayer is subject to one of the taxes specified in Section 59-7-305(1) in the other state. If the taxpayer voluntarily files and pays one or more taxes when not required to do so by the laws of that state or pays a minimal fee for qualification, organization, or for the privilege of doing business in that state, but

(i) does not actually engage in business activity in that state, or

(ii) does actually engage in some business activity, not sufficient for nexus, and the minimum tax bears no relation to the taxpayer's business activity within that state, the taxpayer is not subject to one of the taxes specified within the meaning of Section 59-7-305(1).

(c) When a State Has Jurisdiction to Subject a Taxpayer to a Net Income Tax. The second test, that of Section 59-7-305(2), applies if the taxpayer's business activity is sufficient to give the state jurisdiction to impose a net income tax by reason of business activity under the Constitution and statutes of the United States. Jurisdiction to tax is not present where the state is prohibited from imposing the tax by reason of the provisions of Public Law 86-272, 15 U. S. C. A. Sec. 381-385 (P.L. 86-272). In the case of any state as defined in Section 59-7-302(6), other than a state of the United States or political subdivision of a state, the determination of whether a state has jurisdiction to subject the taxpayer to a net income tax shall be made as though the jurisdictional standards applicable to a state of the United States applied in that state. If jurisdiction is otherwise present, the state is not considered as without jurisdiction by reason of the provisions of a treaty between that state and the United States.

(7) Apportionment Formula. All business income of the taxpayer shall be apportioned to this state by use of the apportionment formula set forth in Section 59-7-311. The elements of the apportionment formula are the property factor, see Subsection (8), the payroll factor, see Subsection (9), and the sales factor, see Subsection (10) of the trade or business of the taxpayer. For exceptions see Subsection (11).

(8) Property Factor.

(a) In General.

(i) The property factor of the apportionment formula shall include all real and tangible personal property owned or rented by the taxpayer and used during the tax period in the regular course of its trade or business. Real and tangible personal property includes land, buildings, machinery, stocks of goods, equipment, and other real and tangible personal property but does not include coin or currency.

(ii) Property used in connection with the production of nonbusiness income shall be excluded from the property factor. Property used both in the regular course of the taxpayer's trade or business and in the production of nonbusiness income shall be included in the factor only to the extent the property is used in the regular course of the taxpayer's trade or business. The method of determining the portion of the value to be included in the factor will depend upon the facts of each case.

(iii) The property factor shall reflect the average value of property includable in the factor. Refer to Subsection (8)(g).

(b) Property Used for the Production of Business Income. Property shall be included in the property factor if it is actually used or is available for or capable of being used during the tax period in the regular course of the trade or business of the taxpayer. Property held as reserves or standby facilities or property held as a reserve source of materials shall be included in the factor. For example, a plant temporarily idle or raw material reserves not currently being processed are includable in the factor. Property or equipment under construction during the tax period, except inventoriable goods in process, shall be excluded from the factor until the property is actually used in the regular course of the trade or business of the taxpayer. If the property is partially used in the regular course of the trade or business of the taxpayer while under construction, the value of the property to the extent used shall be included in the property factor. Property used in the regular course of the trade or business of the taxpayer shall remain in the property factor until its permanent withdrawal is established by an identifiable event such as its conversion to the production of nonbusiness income, its sale, or the lapse of an extended period of time, normally five years, during which the property is no longer held for use in the trade or business.

(c) Consistency in Reporting. In filing returns with this state, if the taxpayer departs from or modifies the manner of valuing property, or of excluding or including property in the property factor, used in returns for prior years, the taxpayer shall disclose in the return for the current year the nature and extent of the modification. If the returns or reports filed by the taxpayer with all states to which the taxpayer reports under UDITPA are not uniform in the valuation of property and in the exclusion or inclusion of property in the property factor, the taxpayer shall disclose in its return to this state the nature and extent of the variance.

(d) Property Factor Numerator. The numerator of the property factor shall include the average value of the real and tangible personal property owned or rented by the taxpayer and used in this state during the tax period in the regular course of the trade or business of the taxpayer. Property in transit between locations of the taxpayer to which it belongs shall be considered to be at the destination for purposes of the property factor. Property in transit between a buyer and seller that is included by a taxpayer in the denominator of its property factor in accordance with its regular accounting practices shall be included in the numerator according to the state of destination. The value of mobile or movable property such as construction equipment, trucks, or leased electronic equipment that are located within and without this state during the tax period shall be determined for purposes of the numerator of the factor on the basis of total time within the state during the tax period. An automobile assigned to a traveling employee shall be included in the numerator of the factor of the state to which the employee's compensation is assigned under the payroll factor or in the numerator of the state in which the automobile is licensed.

(e) Valuation of Owned Property.

(i) Property owned by the taxpayer shall be valued at its original cost. As a general rule original cost is deemed to be the basis of the property for state franchise or income tax purposes (prior to any adjustments) at the time of acquisition by the taxpayer and adjusted by subsequent capital additions or improvements thereto and partial disposition thereof, by reasons including sale, exchange, and abandonment. However, capitalized intangible drilling and development costs shall be included in the property factor whether or not they have been expensed for either federal or state tax purposes.

(ii) Inventory of stock of goods shall be included in the factor in accordance with the valuation method used for state tax purposes.

(iii) Property acquired by gift or inheritance shall be included in the factor at its basis for determining depreciation.

(f) Valuation of Rented Property.

(i) Property rented by the taxpayer is valued at eight times its net annual rental rate. The net annual rental rate for any item of rented property is the annual rental rate paid by the taxpayer for the property, less the aggregate annual subrental rates paid by subtenants of the taxpayer. See Subsection (11)(b) for special rules where the use of the net annual rental rate produces a negative or clearly inaccurate value or where property is used by the taxpayer at no charge or rented at a nominal rental rate.

(ii) Subrents are not deducted when the subrents constitute business income because the property that produces the subrents is used in the regular course of the trade or business of the taxpayer when it is producing the income. Accordingly there is no reduction in its value.

(iii) Annual rental rate is the amount paid as rental for property for a 12-month period; i.e., the amount of the annual rent. Where property is rented for less than a 12-month period, the rent paid for the actual period of rental shall constitute the annual rental rate for the tax period. However, where a taxpayer has rented property for a term of 12 or more months and the current tax period covers a period of less than 12 months (due, for example, to a reorganization or change of accounting period), the rent paid for the short tax period shall be annualized. If the rental term is for less than 12 months, the rent shall not be annualized beyond its term. Rent shall not be annualized because of the uncertain duration when the rental term is on a month to month basis.

(iv) Annual rent is the actual sum of money or other consideration payable, directly or indirectly, by the taxpayer or for its benefit for the use of the property and includes:

(A) Any amount payable for the use of real or tangible personal property, or any part thereof, whether designated as a fixed sum of money or as a percentage of sales, profits or otherwise.

(B) Any amount payable as additional rent or in lieu of rents, such as interest, taxes, insurance, repairs or any other items that are required to be paid by the terms of the lease or other arrangement, not including amounts paid as service charges, such as utilities, and janitor services. If a payment includes rent and other charges unsegregated, the amount of rent shall be determined by consideration of the relative values of the rent and other items.

(v) Annual rent does not include:

(A) incidental day-to-day expenses such as hotel or motel accommodations, or daily rental of automobiles;

(B) royalties based on extraction of natural resources, whether represented by delivery or purchase. For this purpose, a royalty includes any consideration conveyed or credited to a holder of an interest in property that constitutes a sharing of current or future production of natural resources from that property, irrespective of the method of payment or how that consideration may be characterized, whether as a royalty, advance royalty, rental, or otherwise.

(vi) Leasehold improvements shall, for the purposes of the property factor, be treated as property owned by the taxpayer regardless of whether the taxpayer is entitled to remove the improvements or the improvements revert to the lessor upon expiration of the lease. Hence, the original cost of leasehold improvements shall be included in the factor.

(g) Averaging Property Values. As a general rule, the average value of property owned by the taxpayer shall be determined by averaging the values at the beginning and end of the tax period. However, the Tax Commission may require or allow averaging by monthly values if that method of averaging is required to properly reflect the average value of the taxpayer's property for the tax period.

(i) Averaging by monthly values will generally be applied if substantial fluctuations in the values of the property exist during the tax period or where property is acquired after the beginning of the tax period or disposed of before the end of the tax period.

(ii) Example: The monthly value of the taxpayer's property was as follows:

 

TABLE


 January      $2,000
 February      2,000
 March         3,000
 April         3,500
 May           4,500
 June         10,000
 July         15,000
 August       17,000
 September    23,000
 October      25,000
 November     13,000
 December      2,000
 Total      $120,000

 

The average value of the taxpayer's property includable in the property factor for the income year is determined as follows:

$120,000 / 12 = $10,000

(iii) Averaging with respect to rented property is achieved automatically by the method of determining the net annual rental rate of the property as set forth in Subsection (8)(g).

(9) Payroll Factor.

(a) The payroll factor of the apportionment formula shall include the total amount paid by the taxpayer in the regular course of its trade or business for compensation during the tax period.

(b) The total amount paid to employees is determined upon the basis of the taxpayer's accounting method. If the taxpayer has adopted the accrual method of accounting, all compensation properly accrued shall be deemed to have been paid. Notwithstanding the taxpayer's method of accounting, at the election of the taxpayer, compensation paid to employees may be included in the payroll factor by use of the cash method if the taxpayer is required to report compensation under that method for unemployment compensation purposes. The compensation of any employee on account of activities that are connected with the production of nonbusiness income shall be excluded from the factor.

(c) Payments made to an independent contractor or any other person not properly classifiable as an employee are excluded from the payroll factor. Only amounts paid directly to employees are included in the payroll factor. Amounts considered paid directly include the value of board, rent, housing, lodging, and other benefits or services furnished to employees by the taxpayer in return for personal services.

(d) Generally, a person will be considered to be an employee if he is included by the taxpayer as an employee for purposes of the payroll taxes imposed by the Federal Insurance Contributions Act. However, since certain individuals are included within the term employees in the Federal Insurance Contributions Act who would not be employees under the usual common law rules, it may be established that a person who is included as an employee for purposes of the Federal Insurance Contributions Act is not an employee for purposes of this rule.

(e)(A) In filing returns with this state, if the taxpayer departs from or modifies the treatment of compensation paid used in returns for prior years, the taxpayer shall disclose in the return for the current year the nature and extent of the modification.

(B) If the returns or reports filed by the taxpayer with all states to which the taxpayer reports under UDITPA are not uniform in the treatment of compensation paid, the taxpayer shall disclose in its return to this state the nature and extent of the variance.

(f) Denominator. The denominator of the payroll factor is the total compensation paid everywhere during the tax period. Accordingly, compensation paid to employees whose services are performed entirely in a state where the taxpayer is immune from taxation, for example, by P.L. 86-272, are included in the denominator of the payroll factor.

(g) Numerator. The numerator of the payroll factor is the total amount paid in this state during the tax period by the taxpayer for compensation. The tests in Section 59-7-316 to be applied in determining whether compensation is paid in this state are derived from the Model Unemployment Compensation Act. Accordingly, if compensation paid to employees is included in the payroll factor by use of the cash method of accounting or if the taxpayer is required to report compensation under that method for unemployment compensation purposes, it shall be presumed that the total wages reported by the taxpayer to this state for unemployment compensation purposes constitute compensation paid in this state except for compensation excluded under this Subsection (9) . The presumption may be overcome by satisfactory evidence that an employee's compensation is not properly reportable to this state for unemployment compensation purposes.

(h) Compensation Paid in this State. Compensation is paid in this state if any one of the following tests applied consecutively are met:

(i) The employee's service is performed entirely within the state.

(ii) The employee's service is performed both within and without the state, but the service performed without the state is incidental to the employee's service within the state. The word incidental means any service that is temporary or transitory in nature, or that is rendered in connection with an isolated transaction.

(iii) If the employee's services are performed both within and without this state, the employee's compensation will be attributed to this state:

(A) if the employee's base of operations is in this state; or

(B) if there is no base of operations in any state in which some part of the service is performed, but the place from which the service is directed or controlled is in this state; or

(C) if the base of operations or the place from which the service is directed or controlled is not in any state in which some part of the service is performed but the employee's residence is in this state.

(10) Sales Factor. In General.

(a) Section 59-7-302(5) defines the term "sales" to mean all gross receipts of the taxpayer not allocated under Section 59-7-306 through 59-7-310. Thus, for purposes of the sales factor of the apportionment formula for the trade or business of the taxpayer, the term sales means all gross receipts derived by the taxpayer from transactions and activity in the regular course of the trade or business. The following are rules determining sales in various situations.

(i) In the case of a taxpayer engaged in manufacturing and selling or purchasing and reselling goods or products, sales includes all gross receipts from the sales of goods or products (or other property of a kind that would properly be included in the inventory of the taxpayer if on hand at the close of the tax period) held by the taxpayer primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of its trade or business. Gross receipts for this purpose means gross sales, less returns and allowances and includes all interest income, service charges, carrying charges, or time-price differential charges incidental to sales. Federal and state excise taxes (including sales taxes) shall be included as part of receipts if taxes are passed on to the buyer or included as part of the selling price of the product.

(ii) In the case of cost plus fixed fee contracts, such as the operation of a government-owned plant for a fee, sales includes the entire reimbursed cost, plus the fee.

(iii) In the case of a taxpayer engaged in providing services, such as the operation of an advertising agency, or the performance of equipment service contracts, or research and development contracts, sales includes the gross receipts from the performance of services including fees, commissions, and similar items.

(iv) In the case of a taxpayer engaged in renting real or tangible property, sales includes the gross receipts from the rental, lease or licensing of the use of the property.

(v) In the case of a taxpayer engaged in the sale, assignment, or licensing of intangible personal property such as patents and copyrights, sales includes the gross receipts therefrom.

(vi) If a taxpayer derives receipts from the sale of equipment used in its business, those receipts constitute sales. For example, a truck express company owns a fleet of trucks and sells its trucks under a regular replacement program. The gross receipts from the sales of the trucks are included in the sales factor.

(vii) In some cases certain gross receipts should be disregarded in determining the sales factor in order that the apportionment formula will operate fairly to apportion to this state the income of the taxpayer's trade or business. See Subsection (11)(c).

(viii) In filing returns with this state, if the taxpayer departs from or modifies the basis for excluding or including gross receipts in the sales factor used in returns for prior years, the taxpayer shall disclose in the return for the current year the nature and extent of the modification.

(ix) If the returns or reports filed by the taxpayer with all states to which the taxpayer reports under UDITPA are not uniform in the inclusion or exclusion of gross receipts, the taxpayer shall disclose in its return to this state the nature and extent of the variance.

(b) Denominator. The denominator of the sales factor shall include the total gross receipts derived by the taxpayer from transactions and activity in the regular course of its trade or business, except receipts excluded under Subsection (11)(c).

(c) Numerator. The numerator of the sales factor shall include gross receipts attributable to this state and derived by the taxpayer from transactions and activity in the regular course of its trade or business. All interest income, service charges, carrying charges, or time-price differential charges incidental to gross receipts shall be included regardless of the place where the accounting records are maintained or the location of the contract or other evidence of indebtedness.

(d) Sales of Tangible Personal Property in this State.

(i) Gross receipts from the sales of tangible personal property (except sales to the United States government; see Subsection (10)(e) are in this state:

(A) if the property is delivered or shipped to a purchaser within this state regardless of the f.o.b. point or other conditions of sale; or

(B) if the property is shipped from an office, store, warehouse, factory, or other place of storage in this state and the taxpayer is not taxable in the state of the purchaser.

(ii) Property shall be deemed to be delivered or shipped to a purchaser within this state if the recipient is located in this state, even though the property is ordered from outside this state.

(iii) Property is delivered or shipped to a purchaser within this state if the shipment terminates in this state, even though the property is subsequently transferred by the purchaser to another state.

(iv) The term "purchaser within this state" shall include the ultimate recipient of the property if the taxpayer in this state, at the designation of the purchaser, delivers to or has the property shipped to the ultimate recipient within this state.

(v) When property being shipped by a seller from the state of origin to a consignee in another state is diverted while en route to a purchaser in this state, the sales are in this state.

(vi) If the taxpayer is not taxable in the state of the purchaser, the sale is attributed to this state if the property is shipped from an office, store, warehouse, factory, or other place of storage in this state.

(vii) If a taxpayer whose salesman operates from an office located in this state makes a sale to a purchaser in another state in which the taxpayer is not taxable and the property is shipped directly by a third party to the purchaser, the following rules apply:

(A) If the taxpayer is taxable in the state from which the third party ships the property, then the sale is in that state.

(B) If the taxpayer is not taxable in the state from which the property is shipped, the sale is in this state.

(e)(i) Sales of Tangible Personal Property to United States Government in this state.

(ii) Gross receipts from the sales of tangible personal property to the United States government are in this state if the property is shipped from an office, store, warehouse, factory, or other place of storage in this state. For purposes of this rule, only sales for which the United States government makes direct payment to the seller pursuant to the terms of a contract constitute sales to the United States government. Thus, as a general rule, sales by a subcontractor to the prime contractor, the party to the contract with the United States government, do not constitute sales to the United States government.

(f) Sales Other than Sales of Tangible Personal Property in this State.

(i) In general, Section 59-7-319(1) provides for the inclusion in the numerator of the sales factor of gross receipts from transactions other than sales of tangible personal property (including transactions with the United States government). Under Section 59-7-319(1), gross receipts are attributed to this state if the income producing activity that gave rise to the receipts is performed wholly within this state. Also, gross receipts are attributed to this state if, with respect to a particular item of income, the income producing activity is performed within and without this state but the greater proportion of the income producing activity is performed in this state, based on costs of performance.

(ii) The term "income producing activity" applies to each separate item of income and means the transactions and activity directly engaged in by the taxpayer in the regular course of its trade or business for the ultimate purpose of obtaining gains or profit. Income producing activity does not include transactions and activities performed on behalf of a taxpayer, such as those conducted on its behalf by an independent contractor. Accordingly, the income producing activity includes the following:

(A) the rendering of personal services by employees or the utilization of tangible and intangible property by the taxpayer in performing a service;

(B) the sale, rental, leasing, or licensing or other use of real property;

(C) the rental, leasing, licensing or other use of intangible personal property; or

(D) the sale, licensing or other use of intangible personal property. The mere holding of intangible personal property is not, of itself, an income producing activity.

(iii) The term "costs of performance" means direct costs determined in a manner consistent with generally accepted accounting principles and in accordance with accepted conditions or practices in the trade or business of the taxpayer.

(iv) Receipts (other than from sales of tangible personal property) in respect to a particular income producing activity are in this state if:

(A) the income producing activity is performed wholly within this state; or

(B) the income producing activity is performed both in and outside this state and a greater proportion of the income producing activity is performed in this state than in any other state, based on costs of performance.

(v) The following are special rules for determining when receipts from the income producing activities described below are in this state:

(A) Gross receipts from the sale, lease, rental or licensing of real property are in this state if the real property is located in this state.

(B) Gross receipts from the rental, lease, or licensing of tangible personal property are in this state if the property is located in this state. The rental, lease, licensing or other use of tangible personal property in this state is a separate income producing activity from the rental, lease, licensing or other use of the same property while located in another state. Consequently, if the property is within and without this state during the rental, lease or licensing period, gross receipts attributable to this state shall be measured by the ratio that the time the property was physically present or was used in this state bears to the total time or use of the property everywhere during the period.

(C) Gross receipts for the performance of personal services are attributable to this state to the extent services are performed in this state. If services relating to a single item of income are performed partly within and partly without this state, the gross receipts for the performance of services shall be attributable to this state only if a greater portion of the services were performed in this state, based on costs of performance. Usually where services are performed partly within and partly without this state, the services performed in each state will constitute a separate income producing activity. In that case, the gross receipts for the performance of services attributable to this state shall be measured by the ratio that the time spent in performing services in this state bears to the total time spent in performing services everywhere. Time spent in performing services includes the amount of time expended in the performance of a contract or other obligation that gives rise to gross receipts. Personal service not directly connected with the performance of the contract or other obligations, as for example, time expended in negotiating the contract, is excluded from the computations.

(11) Special Rules:

(a) Section 59-7-320 provides that if the allocation and apportionment provisions of UDITPA do not fairly represent the extent of the taxpayer's business activity in this state, the taxpayer may petition for, or the tax administrator may require, in respect to all or any part of the taxpayer's business activity, if reasonable:

(i) separate accounting;

(ii) the exclusion of any one or more of the factors;

(iii) the inclusion of one or more additional factors that will fairly represent the taxpayer's business activity in this state; or

(iv) the employment of any other method to effectuate an equitable allocation and apportionment of the taxpayer's income.

(b) Property Factor.

The following special rules are established in respect to the property factor of the apportionment formula:

(i) If the subrents taken into account in determining the net annual rental rate under Subsection (8)(f)(ii) produce a negative or clearly inaccurate value for any item of property, another method that will properly reflect the value of rented property may be required by the Tax Commission or requested by the taxpayer. In no case however, shall the value be less than an amount that bears the same ratio to the annual rental rate paid by the taxpayer for property as the fair market value of that portion of property used by the taxpayer bears to the total fair market value of the rented property.

(ii) If property owned by others is used by the taxpayer at no charge or rented by the taxpayer for a nominal rate, the net annual rental rate for the property shall be determined on the basis of a reasonable market rental rate for that property.

(c) Sales Factors.

The following special rules are established in respect to the sales factor of the apportionment formula:

(i) Where substantial amounts of gross receipts arise from an incidental or occasional sale of a fixed asset used in the regular course of the taxpayer's trade or business, those gross receipts shall be excluded from the sales factor. For example, gross receipts from the sale of a factory or plant will be excluded.

(ii) Insubstantial amounts of gross receipts arising from incidental or occasional transactions or activities may be excluded from the sales factor unless exclusion would materially affect the amount of income apportioned to this state. For example, the taxpayer ordinarily may include or exclude from the sales factor gross receipts from such transactions as the sale of office furniture, and business automobiles.

(iii) Where the income producing activity in respect to business income from intangible personal property can be readily identified, that income is included in the denominator of the sales factor and, if the income producing activity occurs in this state, in the numerator of the sales factor as well. For example, usually the income producing activity can be readily identified in respect to interest income received on deferred payments on sales of tangible property, see Subsection (10)(a)(i), and income from the sale, licensing or other use of intangible personal property, see Subsection (10)(f)(ii)(D).

(A) Where business income from intangible property cannot readily be attributed to any particular income producing activity of the taxpayer, the income cannot be assigned to the numerator of the sales factor for any state and shall be excluded from the denominator of the sales factor. For example, where business income in the form of dividends received on stock, royalties received on patents or copyrights, or interest received on bonds, debentures or government securities results from the mere holding of the intangible personal property by the taxpayer, such dividends and interest shall be excluded from the denominator of the sales factor.

(B) Exclude from the denominator of the sales factor, receipts from the sales of securities unless the taxpayer is a dealer therein.

(iv) Where gains and losses on the sale of liquid assets are not excluded from the sales factor by other provisions under Subsections (11)(c)(i) through (iii), such gains or losses shall be treated as provided in this Subsection (11)(c)(iv). This Subsection (11)(c)(iv) does not provide rules relating to the treatment of other receipts produced from holding or managing such assets.

(A) If a taxpayer holds liquid assets in connection with one or more treasury functions of the taxpayer, and the liquid assets produce business income when sold, exchanged or otherwise disposed, the overall net gain from those transactions for each treasury function for the tax period is included in the sales factor. For purposes of this Subsection (11)(c)(iv), each treasury function will be considered separately.

(B) For purposes of this Subsection (11)(c)(iv), a liquid asset is an asset (other than functional currency or funds held in bank accounts) held to provide a relatively immediate source of funds to satisfy the liquidity needs of the trade or business. Liquid assets include:

(I) foreign currency (and trading positions therein) other than functional currency used in the regular course of the taxpayer's trade or business;

(II) marketable instruments (including stocks, bonds, debentures, options, warrants, futures contracts, etc.); and

(III) mutual funds which hold such liquid assets.

(C) An instrument is considered marketable if it is traded in an established stock or securities market and is regularly quoted by brokers or dealers in making a market. Stock in a corporation which is unitary with the taxpayer, or which has a substantial business relationship with the taxpayer, is not considered marketable stock.

(D) For purposes of this Subsection (11)(c)(iv)(D), a treasury function is the pooling and management of liquid assets for the purpose of satisfying the cash flow needs of the trade or business, such as providing liquidity for a taxpayer's business cycle, providing a reserve for business contingencies, business acquisitions, etc. A taxpayer principally engaged in the trade or business of purchasing and selling instruments or other items included in the definition of liquid assets set forth herein is not performing a treasury function with respect to income so produced.

(E) Overall net gain refers to the total net gain from all transactions incurred at each treasury function for the entire tax period, not the net gain from a specific transaction.

(d) Domestic International Sales Corporation (DISC). In any case in which a corporation, subject to the income tax jurisdiction of Utah, owns 50 percent or more of the voting power of the stock of a corporation classified as a DISC under the provisions of Sec. 992 Internal Revenue Code, a combined filing with the DISC corporation is required.

(e) Partnership or Joint Venture Income. Income or loss from partnership or joint venture interests shall be included in income and apportioned to Utah through application of the three-factor formula consisting of property, payroll and sales. For apportionment purposes, the portion of partnership or joint venture property, payroll and sales to be included in the corporation's property, payroll and sales factors shall be computed on the basis of the corporation's ownership interest in the partnership or joint venture, and otherwise in accordance with other applicable provisions of this rule.

 

KEY: taxation, franchises, historic preservation, trucking industries

Date of Enactment or Last Substantive Amendment: [August 12, ]2010

Notice of Continuation: March 8, 2007

Authorizing, and Implemented or Interpreted Law: 59-7-302 through 59-7-321

 


Additional Information

The Portable Document Format (PDF) version of the Bulletin is the official version. The PDF version of this issue is available at http://www.rules.utah.gov/publicat/bull-pdf/2010/b20101001.pdf. The HTML edition of the Bulletin is a convenience copy. Any discrepancy between the PDF version and HTML version is resolved in favor of the PDF version.

Text to be deleted is struck through and surrounded by brackets (e.g., [example]). Text to be added is underlined (e.g., example).  Older browsers may not depict some or any of these attributes on the screen or when the document is printed.

For questions regarding the content or application of this rule, please contact Michael Cragun at the above address, by phone at 801-297-3907, by FAX at 801-297-3919, or by Internet E-mail at mcragun@utah.gov.