Utah Department of Administrative Services Division of Administrative Rules

Utah Administrative Code

The Utah Administrative Code is the body of all effective administrative rules as compiled and organized by the Division of Administrative Rules (Subsection 63G-3-102(5); see also Sections 63G-3-701 and 702).

NOTE: For a list of rules that have been made effective since August 1, 2014, please see the codification segue page.

NOTE TO RULEFILING AGENCIES: Use the RTF version for submitting rule changes.


R614. Labor Commission, Occupational Safety and Health.

Rule R614-2. Drilling Industry.

As in effect on August 1, 2014

Table of Contents

R614-2-1. Drilling Industry -- Administrative Provision.

A. Agency.

Labor Commission, Division of Occupational Safety and Health.

B. Authority.

Title 34A, Chapter 6, Utah Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1973.

C. Scope.

1. Section 34A-6-202 establishes the authority, method, and procedures for issuance of standards by the Administrator of UOSH. The standards contained herein govern safety and health for the drilling industry and related services.

2. The UOSH Administrator, following a significant number of inspections of drilling activities, has found many issues unique to the industry which require they be addressed separately and apart from the Utah Rules and Regulations General Industry Standards.

3. Further, the collection of statistical inferences by the Utah Occupational Safety and Health Statistical division indicates a substantial need for occupational safety and health standards for drilling and related services.

D. Effective Date.

January 15, 1980.

E. Variance From Safety and Health Standards.

Variances from standards which are or may be published in this part may be requested under Subsection 34A-6-202(2)(d) of the Utah Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1973. Procedures for the granting of variances or related relief are those published as R614-1-9.

F. Adoption of Existing Standards.

The provisions of this part adopt and extend the applicability of R614 and 29 CFR 1910 and 29 CFR 1926.

G. Inspections--Right of Entry.

1. It shall be a condition of each place of employment where work is performed that the Administrator of the Utah Occupational Safety and Health Act or any authorized representative shall have the right of entry to any site for the following purposes:

2. To inspect or investigate the matter of compliance with the safety and health standards contained in the General Industry Standards and the Oil, Gas, Geothermal and Related Services Standards.

3. For the purpose of carrying out his investigative duties under the Act, the Administrator of the Utah Occupational Safety and Health Act may, by agreement, use with or without reimbursement, the services, personnel, and facilities of any state Agency.

H. Duties of Employers and Employees.

Section 34A-6-201 defines duties of employers and employees.

I. Safety Training and Education.

1. The Administrator of the Utah Occupational Safety and Health Act shall establish and supervise programs for the education and training of employers and employees in the recognition, avoidance, and prevention of unsafe conditions in employments covered by this act.

2. Employer Responsibility.

a. The employer should avail himself of the safety and health training programs the Administrator provides.

b. The employer shall instruct each employee in the recognition and avoidance of unsafe conditions and the regulations applicable to his work environments to control or eliminate any hazards or other exposure to illness or injury.

c. In job site areas where harmful plants or animals are present, employees who may be exposed shall be instructed regarding the potential hazards, and how to avoid injury, and the first aid procedures to be used in the event of injury.

J. Reporting Requirements.

Shall meet the requirements of R614-102-13.

K. Incorporation by Reference.

1. 29 CFR 1910 and 1926 and standards of the American National Standards Institute, National Fire Protection Association, National Electrical Code, and other consensus standards are incorporated by reference, or when referenced in this UOSH standard, shall have the same force and effect as other standards, rules, or regulations.

2. Consensus standards and any changes in the referenced standards are available for examination at the Occupational Safety and Health Division, Labor Commission, as listed in the current public telephone directory.

L. General Drilling Rules.

1. Surface casing shall be run to reach a depth to prevent blowouts or uncontrolled wells. In areas where pressures and formations are unknown, surface casing shall be of sufficient size to permit the use of an intermediate string or strings of casing. Surface casing shall be set in or through an impervious formation and shall be cemented by the pump and plug or displacement or other approved method with sufficient cement to fill the annulus to the top of the hole. If cement is not circulated to surface during the primary operation, the drilling owner/operator shall perform cemented operations to assure that the annular space from the casing shoe to the surface is filled with cement.

2. The cemented casing string shall stand under pressure until the cement has reached a compressive strength of 300 pounds per square inch; providing, however, that no further operation shall be commenced until the cement has been in place at least 8 hours. The term "under pressure" as used herein shall be complied with if one float valve is used or if pressure is otherwise held.

3. Setting depths of all casing string shall be determined by taking into account formation fracture gradients and the maximum anticipated pressure to be maintained within the well bore.

4. If and when it becomes necessary to run a production string, such string shall be cemented by the pump and plug method, and shall be properly tested by the pressure method before cement plugs are drilled.

5. Natural gas which may be encountered in a substantial quantity in any section of a cable-tool drilled hole above the ultimate objective shall be shut off with reasonable diligence either by mudding or casing, or other approved method and confined to its original source. Any gas escaping from the well during drilling operations shall be, so far as practicable, conducted a safe distance from the well site and burned in accordance with the Rules and Regulations of the Environmental Quality Department of the State, or otherwise safely disposed of.

M. Site Clearing and Roads, General Requirements.

1. Employees engaged in site clearing shall be protected from hazards of irritant and toxic plants, and suitably instructed in the first aid treatment available.

2. All equipment used in site clearing shall be equipped with rollover guards in accordance with 29 CFR 1926.1000. In addition, rider-operated equipment shall be equipped with an overhead and rear canopy guard meeting the following requirements:

a. The overhead covering on this canopy structure shall be covered with not less than 1/8 inch steel plate or 1/4 inch woven wire mesh with openings no greater than one inch or equivalent.

b. The opening in the rear of the canopy structure shall be covered with no less than 1/4 inch woven wire mesh with openings no greater than one inch.

3. On single lane private roads with two-way traffic, arrangements shall be provided with adequate turnouts. Where adequate turnouts are not practical, a control system shall be provided to prevent vehicles from meeting on such single lane roads.

R614-2-2. Drilling Industry -- Definition of Terms.

A. General Terms.

1. "Act" means the Utah Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1973.

2. "Administration" means the Division of Occupational Safety and Health of the Labor Commission, also known as UOSH (Utah Occupational Safety and Health).

3. "Administrator" means the director of the Division of Utah Occupational Safety and Health.

4. "Commission" means the Labor Commission.

5. "Employee" includes any person suffered or permitted to work by an employer.

6. "Employer" means:

a. The state;

b. Each county, city, town, and school district in the state; and

c. Every person, firm, and private corporation, including public utilities, having one or more workers or operatives regularly employed in the same business, or in or about the same establishment, under any contract of hire.

B. Industry Terms.

1. "Accumulator" - On a drilling rig, the nitrogen and hydraulic oil for closing the blowout preventer in an emergency is kept in an accumulator.

2. "Acidizing" - The treatment of oil-bearing limestone or other formations by chemical reaction with acid in order to increase production. Hydrochloric or other type acid is injected into the formation under pressure, bringing about an enlargement of the pore spaces and passages through which the reservoir fluids flow. The acid is held under pressure for a period of time and then pumped out; the well is swabbed and put back into production. Chemical inhibitors are combined with the acid to prevent corrosion of the pipe.

3. "A-frame" - A form of derrick or crane used to handle heavy loads.

4. "Air Drilling" - Drilling using air or gas as the circulating medium.

5. "Anchor, Deadline" - Holding the deadline to the derrick or substructure.

6. "Annular Space" - The space surrounding pipe suspended in the wellbore. The outer wall of the annular space may be an open hole or it may be a string or larger pipe.

7. "Approved" - sanctioned, endorsed,accredited certified, or accepted by a duly constituted and recognized authority or agency.

8. "Authorized Person" - A person approved or assigned by the employer to a specific type of duty or duties or to be at a specific location or locations at the job-site.

9. "Back-up Line (Snub Line)" - A wire rope, one end of which is fastened to the end of a pipe tong handle and the other end secured to hold the tongs stationary while such tongs are in use.

10. "Back-up Post" - A post, column or stanchion secured to the derrick, derrick floor or derrick foundation, the purpose of which is to make secure the dead end of the back-up line.

11. "Back-up Tong" - The name applied to the drill pipe tong suspended in the derrick and used to hold a section of drill pipe while another section is unscrewed from it by use of another tong.

12. "Barricade" - An obstruction to deter the passage of persons or vehicles.

13. "Berm" - A pile or mound of material capable of restraining a vehicle.

14. "Bit" - The cutting element attached to the bottom of the drill stem. These are broken down into three general categories: roller bits, usually having three rolling cones with milled teeth or inserts; diamond bits using diamonds for cutting; and drag bits with fixed blades.

15. "Bleed" - To drain off liquid or gas, generally slowly, through a valve called a bleeder. To bleed down or bleed off, means a controlled release of the pressure of a well or of pressurized equipment.

16. "Block" - In mechanics, one or more pulleys or sheaves mounted to rotate on a common axis; any assembly of pulleys on a common frame work. The crown block is an assembly of sheaves mounted on beams at the top of the derrick. The drilling line, is reeved over the sheaves of the crown block alternately with the sheaves of the traveling block, which is hoisted and lowered in the derrick by means of the drilling line.

17. "Blowout" - A sudden, violent escape of gas and oil (and sometimes water) from a well.

18. "Blowout Preventer" - A device attached immediately above the casing to control pressures and prevent escape of fluids from the annular space between the drill pipe and casing or shut off the hole if no drill pipe is in the hole, should a kick or blowout occur.

19. "Board" -A platform installed in the derrick approximately 90 feet above the derrick floor. The derrickman works on this board while the pipe is being hoisted from or lowered into the wellbore.

20. "Boom" - a movable arm of wood or steel used on some types of cranes or derricks to support the hoisting lines that carry the load.

21. "Bowline" - A knot much used in lifting heavy equipment with the catline. Its advantage lies in the fact that it can be readily untied irrespective of the load that has been placed on it.

22. "Breaking down" - Usually means unscrewing the drill stem into single joints and placing them on the pipe rack. This operation takes place at the completion of the well when the drill pipe will no longer be used. It also takes place when changing from one size drill pipe to another during drilling operations. It is necessary to "break the pipe down" in order that it will be in lengths short enough to be handled and moved. Also called Laying Down.

23. "Breakout Line" - Either a wire rope or a manila or fiber rope used in conjunction with a pipe tong and a cathead which serves to impart a pulling power on the tong handle to start the unscrewing or breaking of a threaded pipe joint or tool joint when the pipe is in a vertical position in the well and projecting above the rotary table.

24. "Breakout" - Refers to the act of unscrewing one section of pipe from another section, especially in the case of drill pipe while it is being withdrawn from the wellbore. During this operation the Breakout Tongs are used to start the unscrewing operation.

25. "Casing" - Steel pipe placed in an oil or gas well as drilling progresses. The function of casing is to prevent the wall of the hole from caving during drilling and to provide a means of extracting the oil if the well is productive.

26. "Cat" - A crawler type tractor noted for its ability to move over difficult terrain. It is much used in clearing the location, earth-moving operations, and skidding rigs. The operator or driver is frequently referred to as a CAT DRIVER. This term is probably a shortening of the trade name Caterpillar, which is a brand of this type of equipment.

27. "Cathead" - Is a spool shaped steel mechanical device mounted on the end of a shaft of a drawworks, well pulling hoist or other machinery onto which a fiber rope such as a catline, breakout line, make-up line, spinning line, is wrapped to impart a pulling power to such rope or line.

28. "Cathead--automatic" - A steel mechanical device, generally in such shapes as a sheave, hoist, drum, pulley or wheel, and is mounted on the shafting of a drawworks, well pulling hoist or other machinery to which is attached a breakout line, make-up line, or a spinning line. The primary purpose of the automatic cathead is to impart a pulling power on the breakout line, make-up line, and/or spinning line. (See definitions for Breakout Line, Make-up Line and Spinning Line.)

29. "Catline" - a rope, usually a manila rope which is usually reeved over a single sheave in the mast or on a sheave suspended from the derrick gin pole. It serves a general utility purpose for making pulls, lifting or lowering objects up into or from the derrick, lifting and transferring materials about the derrick floor. One end of the line is attached to the object, other end is wrapped around the cathead to effect the source of power.

30. "Cellar" - Excavation under the derrick to provide space for items of equipment at the top of the wellbore. Also serves as a pit to collect drainage of water and other fluids under the floor for subsequent disposal by jetting.

31. "Cementing" - The operation by which cement slurry is forced down through the casing and out at the lower end in such a way that it fills the space between the casing and the sides of the wellbore to a predetermined height above the bottom of the well. This is for the purpose of securing the casing in place and excluding water and other fluids from the wellbore.

32. "Christmas Tree" - A term applied to the valves and fittings assembled at the top of a well to control the flow of the fluids.

33. "Circulating Fluid"--drilling Fluid, Mud - A fluid consisting of water, oil, or other liquid which may contain clay, weighting materials and/or chemicals which is circulated through the drill pipe and well bore during rotary drilling and workover operations.

34. "Closed-container" - A container so sealed by means of a lid or other device that neither liquid nor vapor will escape from it at ordinary temperatures.

35. "Collar" - Usually refers to a coupling device used to join two lengths of pipe.

36. "Combustion" - Any chemical process that invloves oxidation sufficient to produce light or heat.

37. "Combustible Liquids" - Any liquid having a flash point at or above 100 degrees F. (37.8 degrees C.)

38. "Competent Person" - One who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings of working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.

39. "Corrosion" - The complex chemical or electrochemical process by which metal is destroyed through reaction with its environment. The familiar coating of rust that appears on steel is a product of corrosion.

40. "Corrosive" - An agent which, in contact with animal tissue, by chemical reaction will cause more or less severe destruction and with which systematic effects are either of secondary nature or less pronounced than with poisons.

41. "Counter Weight" - A ladder climbing assist device.

42. "Crown Block" - Two or more metal beams of plates and other metal parts assembled into a framework within which are mounted one or more sheaves. The crown block is mounted on top of the derrick. The hoisting line is reeved on the crown block sheaves.

43. "Dead Line" - This refers to the end of the drilling line which is not reeled on the hoisting drum of the rotary rig. This end of the drilling line is usually anchored to the derrick substructure and does not move as the traveling block is hoisted, hence the term "dead line."

44. "Dead Man" - A buried anchor to which guy-wires are tied to steady the derrick, boiler stacks, etc.

45. "Density" - The weight of a substance per unit volume. For instance, the density of drilling mud may be described as "10.0 lbs. per gallon" or "74.9 lbs. per cubic foot."

46. "Derrick" - Any one of a large number of types of load-bearing structures. In drilling work, the standard derrick has four legs standing at the corners of the substructure and reaching to the crown blocks. The substructure is an assembly of heavy beams used to elevate the derrick above the ground and provide space to install blowout preventers, casing heads, etc. The standard derrick has largely been replaced by the mast for drilling. The mast is lowered and raised without disassembly. For land transport it may be divided into two or more sections to avoid excessive length on the highway.

47. "Derrick Foundation" - Is either concrete, wood, or other solid and substantial material placed on the ground upon which the derrick is built and/or supported, and includes all the substructure which supports the derrick legs and derrick floor.

48. "Derrick Gin Pole" - An assembly of two or more vertical or upright members supporting one or more cross members, erected on the top of a derrick above the opening in the top thereof. It serves as a support for a block and tackle, primarily for raising or lowering the crown block to or from the top of the derrick.

49. "Derrick Ladder" - A fixed ladder attached to a derrick as a means of access to the top and/or any inside platform on the derrick.

50. "Derrick Walk" (Cat Walk) - This is a walkway extending from the V Door Ramp beyond the outer end of the drill pipe and casing storage rack at a well, the purpose of which is to facilitate the handling of the pipe between the rack and the derrick.

51. "Derrickman" - The crew member whose work station is in the derrick while the drill stem is being hoisted from or being lowered into the hold. He attaches the elevators to the drill stem members as they are being lowered into hold and detaches the elevators and racks the drill stem in the finger board after it is unscrewed and set on the floor. Other responsibilities frequently include the conditioning of the drilling fluid and maintenance of the mud and slush pumps.

52. "Diesel Electric Power" - The power supplied to a drilling rig by diesel engines driving electric generators. This type of power is widely used on drilling barges and offshore platforms.

53. "Drawworks" - Includes an assembly of shafts, sprockets, chains, pulleys, belts, clutches, catheads, and/or other mechanical devices, suitably mounted and provided with controls, for hoisting, operating, and handling the equipment used for drilling a well or servicing a producing well. Drawworks may be either stationary or portable.

54. "Elevator" - A steel mechanical device used in connection with the hoisting equipment, suspended from the traveling block or traveling block hook, for holding in suspension pipe or sucker rods being lowered into or pulled from a well. There being so many types of elevators only the most common type is herein described as follows: one side of the elevator body is a gate or door which, when closed, forms a conjunction with the remaining part of the elevator body a circular opening that fits snugly around the pipe or rod just below the threaded joint, sleeve, or coupling thereof. The threaded joint, sleeve, or coupling being larger than the circular opening in the elevator body, the pipe or rods are held in suspension from the elevator.

55. "Fast Line" - The end of the drilling line which is affixed to the drum or reel. It is so called because it apparently travels with greater velocity than any other portion of the drilling line.

56. "Feed-off" - The act of unwinding a cable from a drum. Also a device on a drilling rig that keeps the weight on the bit constant, and lowers the drilling line automatically. Known as the "automatic driller."

57. "Finger Board" - A rack with fingers located in the derrick to contain the top of the stands of pipe while they are racked in the derrick.

58. "Finger Brace" - Any structural member either in direct or indirect contact with the finger to resist either horizontal, vertical, or diagonal movement of the finger.

59. "Fireman" - The member of the crew on a steam-powered rig who is responsible for the care and operation of the boilers. On a mechanical rig his counterpart is the motorman.

60. "Fish" - An object accidentally lost in the hole.

61. "Fishing" - Operations on the rig for the purpose of retrieving from the wellbore sections of pipe, casing or other items which may have become stuck or inadvertently dropped in the hole.

62. "Flammable" -Capable of being easily ignited,burning intensely, or having a rapid rate of flame spread.

63. "Flammable Liquid" - Any liquid having a flash point below 100 degrees F. and having a vapor pressure not exceeding 40 pounds per square inch (absolute) at 100 degrees F.

64. "Flare" - An open flame used to dispose of unwanted gas.

65. "Flash Point" (of the liquid) - The temperature at which it gives off vapor sufficient to form an ignitable mixture with the air near the surface of the liquid or within the vessel used as determined by appropriate test procedure and apparatus as specified below.

a. The flash point of liquids having a viscosity less than 45 Saybolt Universal Second(s) at 100 degrees F. (37.8) degrees C.) and a flash point below 175 degrees F. (79.4 degrees C.) shall be determined in accordance with the standard Method of test for Flash Point by the Tag Closed Tester, American Standard Testing Method ASTM D-56- 69.

b. The flash point of liquids having a viscosity of 45 Saybolt Universal Second(s) or more at 175 degrees C.) or higher shall be determined in accordance with the Standard Method of Test for Flash Point by the Pensky Martens Closed Tester,(ASTM) D-93-69.

66. "Floor Hole" - An opening measuring less than 12 inches but more than 1 inch in its least dimension in any floor, roof, or platform through which materials but not persons may fall, such as a belt hold, pipe opening, or slot opening.

67. "Floor Opening" - An opening measuring 12 inches or more in its least dimension in any floor, roof, or platform through which persons may fall.

68. "Floorman" - A member of the drilling crew whose work station is usually on the derrick floor.

69. "Fracturing"(Formation) -A method of stimulating production by increasing the permeability of the producing formation. Under extremely high hydraulic pressure, a fluid such as distillate, diesel fuel, crude oil, dilute hydrochloric acid, water, or kerosene is piped downward through production tubing or drill pipe and forced out below a packer between two packers. The pressure causes cracks to open in the formation, and the fluid penetrates the formation through the cracks. Sand grains, aluminum pellets, walnut shells, or similar materials are carried in suspension by the fluid into the cracks. These are called propping agents. When the pressure is released at the surface, the fracturing fluid returns to the well. The cracks partially close on the pellets, leaving channels for oil to flow around them to the well. Sometimes shortened to "Frac."

70. "Gas Cut Mud" - Mud with entrained formation gas which gives the mud a characteristic fluffy texture.

71. "Gas" or "Gases" - The vapor state of the hydrocarbons occurring in, or derived from, petroleum or natural gas.

72. "Gel" -A gelatinous substance formed by certain colloidal dispersions at rest. Gel Strength is a measure of the ability of a colloidal dispersion to form such a gel, and is based upon its resistance to shear. The gel strength of a drilling mud determines its ability to hold solids in suspension, and for this reason bentonite and other colloidal clays are added to drilling fluids. It is important that the gel formed by the mud, when drilling is not in progress, be thixotropic--that is, it should be readily converted to a fluid state by agitation and then gel again when at rest in order to prevent the cuttings from settling to the bottom of the hole.

73. "Geronimo Escape Line" - A wire line attached near the board which has a man-riding trolley to convey personnel to the ground by use of a friction control speed device.

74. "Handrail" - A bar or pipe supported on brackets from a wall or partition, as on a stairway or ramp, to furnish persons with a handhold in case of tripping.

75. "Hazardous Substance" - A substance which, by reason of being explosive, flammable, poisonous, corrosive, oxidizing, causing irritation, or otherwise harmful, is likely to cause death or injury.

76. "Kelly" - The heavy square or hexagonal steel pipe which goes through the rotary table and in conjunction with the drive bushing turns the drill string.

77. "Kelly Cock" - A valve installed between the swivel and the kelly. When a high pressure backflow begins, the operator can close this valve and keep the pressure off the swivel and rotary hose.

78. "Liquefied Petroleum Gases" - "LPG: and LP-Gas" mean and include any material which is composed predominantly of any of the following hydrocarbons or mixtures of them, such as propane, propylene, butane, (normal butane or iso-butane), and butylenes.

79. "Log" - A running account listing a series of events in chronological order. The driller's log is a tour-to-tour account of progress made in drilling. An electric well log is the record of geological formations which is made by a well logging device. This device operates on the principle of differential resistance of various formations to the transmission of electric current.

80. "Logging" - A generic term used when instruments are run in the hole for any of several purposes during drilling or completion operations.

81. "Lubricator" - An extension of casing or tubing above a valve on top of the casing or tubing head. Lubricators are supplied with a pack-off, or pressure sealing, device at the upper end to afford a seal on the wireline, or other connection, attached to tools run into a well.

82. "Making a Trip" - Consists of hoisting the drill pipe to the surface and returning it to the bottom of the wellbore. This is done for the purpose of changing bits, preparing to take a core, and for other reasons.

83. "Motorman" - The man on a mechanical rotary drilling rig responsible for the care and operation of the drilling engines.

84. "Mouse Hole" - A shallow cased hole close to the rotary table through the derrick floor in which a joint of drill string can be placed to facilitate connecting the joint to the kelly.

85. "Mud" - The liquid that is circulated through the wellbore during rotary drilling and workover operations. In addition to its function of bringing cutting to the surface, drilling mud also cools and lubricates the bit and drill string, protects against blowouts by containing subsurface pressures, and deposits a mud cake on the wall of the borehole to prevent loss of fluids to the formations. Although it originally was a suspension of earth solids, especially clays, in water, the mud used in modern drilling operations is a somewhat more complex three-phase mixture of liquids, reactive solids, and inert solids. The liquid phase may be fresh water, diesel oil, or crude oil, and may contain one or more conditioners.

86. "Mud Balance" - An instrument consisting of a cup and graduated arm with a sliding weight and resting on a fulcrum, used to measure weight of the mud.

87. "Mud Gun" - A pipe that shoots a jet of drilling mud under high pressure into the mud pit to mix the additives and stir the mud for other reasons.

88. "Mud Log" - To record information derived from examination and analysis of return circulation mud and drillbit cuttings.

89. "Mud off" - In drilling, to seal the hole off from the formation water or oil by using mud. Applies especially to the undesirable blocking off of the flow of oil from the formation into the wellbore. Special care is given to the treatment of drilling fluid to avoid this.

90. "Mud Pit" - The reservoir or tank through which the drilling mud is cycled to allow sand and fine sediments to settle out, where additives are mixed with mud,and where the fluid is temporarily stored before being pumped back into the well. Mud pits may be further classified as the shaker pit, settling pit, and suction pit, according to their main purpose.

91. "Mud (Slush) Pump" - A large single (triplex) or double (duplex) acting pump used to circulate mud down the drill pipe and up the annulus, under normal operations. It is a piston type pump whose pistons reciprocate in replaceable liners.

92. "Outside Derrick Platform" - A walkway extending across one or more outer sides of a derrick at an elevation of 10 feet or more above the derrick floor.

93. "Pipe Rack" - A series of parallel heavy wooden or steel bents, secured in place by bracing, on which pipe is stored. Flooring may be laid upon the bents.

94. "Platform" - A working space for persons, elevated above the surrounding floor or ground, such as a balcony or platform for the operation of machinery and equipment.

95. "Pressure Relief Device" - A device for relieving pressure, such as a direct spring-loaded safety valve, rupture disc, or piston shear pin valve.

96. "Prime Mover" - As applied to oil well drilling, this is the steam or diesel engine, electric motor, or other internal-combustion engine which is the source of power for the drilling rig.

97. "Qualified" - Means one who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by knowledge, training and/or experience, has successfully demonstrated his ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.

98. "Ram" - On a blowout preventer, the closing and sealing component.

99. "Respiratory Equipment" - Is approved self-contained oxygen breathing apparatus, canister-type gas masks, air hose masks, and other approved equipment providing equivalent protection.

100. "Rig" - All mechanical equipment directly connected with the drilling of a well or for producing petroleum from a well.

101. "Rigging down" - The act of dismantling the drilling rig and auxiliary equipment following the completion of drilling operations. Also referred to as tearing down.

102. "Rigging up" - The act of assembling the drilling rig and auxiliary equipment prior to commencement of drilling operations.

103. "Rotary Drilling" - The drilling method by which a hole is drilled by a rotating bit to which a downward force (drill collars) is applied. The bit is fastened to and rotated by the drill stem, which also provides a passage for the circulating fluid.

104. "Rotary Hose" - The hose that conducts the circulating fluid from the standpipe to the swivel and kelly.

105. "Roustabout" - A laborer who assists the foreman in the general work about producing oil wells and around the property of the oil company. Also used on large offshore drilling rigs to help maintain the rig and load and unload material.

106. "Runway" - A passage for a person, elevated above the surrounding floor or ground level, such as a footwalk along shafting or a walkway between buildings.

107. "Safety Can" - Means an approved closed container, of not more than 5 gallons capacity, having a spring-closing lid and spout cover and so designed that it will safely relieve internal pressure when subjected to fire and exposure.

108. "Shale Shaker" - A vibrating screen that removes coarser cuttings from the circulating fluid before it flows into the return mud pit, disilters or desanders.

109. "Shall" - Means mandatory.

110. "Shutdown" - A term denoting that work has been temporarily stopped as on an oil well.

111. "Slurry" - Any mixture of solids and water or cement slurry which is pumped into the well to cement casing or plug back.

112. "Source of Ignition" - Any flame, arc, spark, or heat which is capable of igniting flammable liquids, sour gas, or oil, gases, or vapors.

113. "Spudding" - Refers to the act of hoisting the drill stem and permitting it to fall freely so that the drill bit strikes the bottom of the wellbore or bridge with considerable force. This is done to clean the bit of an accumulation of sticky shale which has slowed the rate of penetration and/or remove bridges or other obstructions. Careless execution of this operation can result in kinks in the drill string as well as damaged bit cones and bearings.

114. "Spudding in" - The very beginning of drilling operations of a well. The term has been handed down from cable tool operations in the early days of the oil industry.

115. "Stabbing Board" - A temporary platform in the derrick, 20 to 40 feet above the floor, on which a crewman works while casing is being run to guide a joint while it is being screwed into the joint in the rotary table.

116. "Stair Railing" - A vertical barrier erected along exposed sides of a stairway to prevent falls of persons.

117. "Stairs" or "Stairways" - A series of steps leading from one level or floor to another, or leading to platforms, pits, boiler rooms, crossovers, or around machinery, tanks, and other equipment that are used more or less continuously or routinely by employees or only occasionally by specific individuals. A series of steps and landings having three or more rises constitutes stairs or stairway.

118. "Standard Railing" - A vertical barrier erected along exposed edges of a floor opening, wall opening, ramp, platform, or runway to prevent falls of persons.

119. "Standpipe" - Part of the circulating system. A pipe extending, usually along a derrick leg, to a height suitable for attaching the rotary hose.

120. "Substructure" - The foundation on which, normally, the derrick and engines sit. Height varies depending upon the equipment required, such as the blowout preventers, for the particular operation.

121. "Swabbing" - Operation of a lifting device on a wireline to bring well fluids to the surface when the well does not flow naturally. This is a temporary operation to determine whether or not the well can be made to flow or require artificial lift or stimulation to bring oil to the surface.

122. "Thribble" - A stand of drill pipe made up of three joints, each about 30 feet in length.

123. "Toeboard" - A vertical barrier at floor level erected along exposed edges of a floor opening, wall opening, platform, runway, or ramp to prevent falls of materials.

124. "Toolpusher" - The rig owner's supervisor who is in charge of one or more rigs. Usually the drilling contractor's highest level of direct field supervision.

125. "Tour" - The word which designates the shift of a drilling crew or other oil field workers.

126. "Traveling Block" - Two or more steel plates and other metal parts assembled into a framework within which are mounted one or more sheaves on which the hoisting line is reeved in connection with the sheaves on the crown block.

127. "Traveling Block Hook" - A hook suspended from the traveling block to which the elevator links, swivel bail, or other equipment is attached.

128. "V-door Ramp" - A ramp on the side of the drilling rig where pipe is laid to be lifted to the derrick floor by the catline.

129. "V-door (Window)" - An opening in a side of a standard derrick at the floor level having the form of an inverted V. This opening is opposite the drawworks. It is used as an entry to bring in drill pipe and casing from the pipe rack.

130. "Vapor Proof" - A term used to describe a product which is not susceptible to the action of gases or other vapors.

131. "Viscosity" - A measure of liquid's resistance to flow. The viscosity of petroleum products or mud is usually expressed, and measured by the time it takes for a certain volume to flow through an orifice of specific size.

132. "Wall Opening" - An opening at least 30 inches wide, in any wall or partition, through which persons may fall, such as a yard-arm doorway or chute opening.

133. "Weight Indicator" - Instrument on a drilling or workover rig, which shows the weight suspended from hook.

134. "Weighting Material" - A material used to increase the density of drilling fluids or cement slurries.

135. "Wellbore" - The hole made by the drilling bit.

136. "Wildcat" - A well in unproved territory. With present day exploration methods and equipment about one wildcat of every 10 drilled proves to be commercially productive.

137. "Wildcatter" - One who drills wells in the hope of finding oil in territory not known to be an oil field.

138. "Wind Load Rating" - A specification of a derrick used to indicate the resistance of the derrick to the force of wind.

139. "Work-over" - To perform one or more of a variety of remedial operations on a producing oil well with the hope of restoring or increasing production. Examples of work-over operations are deepening, plugging back, pulling and resetting the line, squeeze cementing, shooting and acidizing.

140. "Well Servicing" or "Special Services" - Consists of, but not limited to the operations listed in the 1972 Standard Industrial Classifications Manual under "1382 Oil and Gas Field Services" and "1389 Oil and Gas Field Services, Not Elsewhere classified."

R614-2-3. Drilling Industry -- General Safety and Health Provisions.

A. General Requirements.

Protective equipment, including personal protective equipment for eyes, face, head, and extremities, protective clothing, respiratory devices, and protective shields and barriers, shall be provided, used and maintained in a sanitary and reliable condition wherever it is necessary by reason of hazards of processes or environment, chemical hazards, radiological hazards, hot surfaces, or mechanical irritants encountered in a manner capable of causing injury or impairment in the function of any part of the body through absorption, inhalation, or physical contact.

B. First Aid Supplies and Training.

1. Every operation subject to the provision of these orders shall at all times have a supply of first aid equipment (24 unit min.) which shall be conveniently located so as to be readily accessible. The first aid supplies shall be encased in suitable sanitary storage places so as to protect them from contamination, and the contents of the kits replenished as used.

2. At least one employee at the work site shall be trained in first aid and rescue operations.

3. First aid equipment shall be provided. This equipment shall be stored in sanitary places which are conveniently and accessibly located. First aid equipment shall include: one set of arm and leg splints; two all-wool blankets or blankets equal in strength and fire resistance; and one stretcher. Where harmful chemicals are being used, readily accessible facilities shall be available for rapid flushing of the eyes and/or skin areas.

4. Provisions shall be made prior to commencement of the project for either prompt transportation of an injured person to a physician or hospital, or an effective communication system for contacting necessary ambulance service.

5. The telephone numbers of the physician, hospitals, or ambulances shall be conspicuously posted.

C. Housekeeping.

Good housekeeping is the first law of accident prevention and shall be a primary concern of all supervisors and workers. An excessively littered or dirty work area will not be tolerated as it constitutes an unsafe, hazardous condition of employment.

D. Pressure Vessels and Boilers.

1. Pressure Vessels: Shall be built in accordance with the requirements for Unfired Pressure Vessels of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, pursuant to Section 34A-7-102.

2. Boilers: Boilers provided by the employer shall be deemed to be in compliance with the requirements of this rule when evidence of current and valid certification by an insurance company or regulatory authority attesting to the safe installation, inspection, and testing is presented.

E. Employee-Owned Equipment.

Where employees provide their own protective equipment, the employer shall be responsible to assure that it meets the appropriate American National Standard Institute or a national consensus standard.

F. Head Protection.

1. The employer shall require the use of Class A protective helmet (Safety Hard Hat) where there is a hazard from flying or falling objects.

2. Where there is a risk of injury from hair entanglement in moving parts of machinery, employees shall confine their hair to eliminate the hazard.

G. Eye and Face Protection.

Employees shall be provided with eye and face protective equipment when machines or operations present potential eye or face injury from physical, chemical, or radiation agents.

H. Respiratory Protection.

1. When necessary appropriate respiratory protective devices shall be provided by the employer and shall be used.

2. The employer shall provide and shall require employees to use self contained breathing apparatus or supplied air respirators in atmospheres which have an oxygen concentration of less than 19.5%. All units shall be of a pressure demand type or a positive pressure type.

3. All respiratory devices regardless of type shall be selected, used, and maintained in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.134 "Respiratory Protection" of the Utah Occupational Safety and Health Rules and Regulations.

a. The air from a regular compressed air line may be used for breathing air systems if:

b. A trap and carbon filter are installed and regularly maintained to remove oil, water, scale, and odor;

c. A pressure reducing diaphragm or valve is installed to reduce pressure down to requirements of the particular type of respirator; and

d. An automatic control is provided to either sound an alarm or shut down the compressor in case of over heating.

I. Occupational Noise Exposure.

1. Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be provided when the sound levels exceed those shown in the following permissible noise exposure table when measured on the "A" scale of a standard sound level meter at slow response. When noise levels are determined by octave band analysis, the equivalent A-weighted sound level may be determined by referring to 29 CFR 1910.95(a), Figure G-9.

2. When employees are subjected to sound exceeding those listed in the following table, feasible administrative or engineering controls shall be utilized. If such controls fail to reduce sound levels within the levels of the table, personal protective equipment shall be provided and used to reduce sound levels within the levels of the table.

                                                    TABLE 1

                                               PERMISSIBLE NOISE EXPOSURES

                  Duration per   Sound level dBA
                  day, hours     slow response

                     8                 90
                     6                 92
                     4                 95
                     3                 97
                     2                100
                     1-1/2            102
                     1                105
                     1/2              110
                     1/4 or less      115

          When the daily noise exposure is composed of
          two or more periods of noise exposure of
          different levels, their combined effect should
          be considered, rather than the individual
          effect of each.  If the sum of the following
          fractions:  C1/T1 + C2/T2...Cn/Tn exceeds unity,
          then the mixed exposure should be considered
          to exceed the limit value.  Cn indicates the
          total time of exposure at a specified noise
          level, and Tn indicates the total time of
          exposure permitted at that level.
                                                            

3. Exposure to impulsive or impact noise shall not exceed 140 dB peak sound pressure level.

4.Variations in sound levels

a. If the variations in noise levels involve maxima at intervals of 1 second or less, it is to be considered continuous.

b. In all cases where the sound levels exceed the values shown herein, a continuing, effective hearing conservation program shall be administered.

5. Audiometric Tests.

a. Audiometric testing may be requested by the UOSH Administrator whenever individual hearing loss is in question. These tests shall be arranged for by the employer and shall be given under medical supervision.

b. To ensure accurate audiograms, the facilities must meet the following minimum standards:

c. Test Room. Audiograms shall be obtained only in environments which meet the requirements of the American National Standards Institute for background noise.

d. Audiometer. Audiometers shall meet the specifications of the American National Standards Institute and should be maintained in calibration in accordance with recognized procedures.

J. Working Over or Near Water.

Employees working over or near water, where the danger of drowning exists, shall be provided with U.S. Coast Guard-approved life jackets or buoyant work vests.

K. Occupational Foot Protection.

The employer shall require employees to wear safety shoes or boots in the working areas.

L. Safety Harnesses, Lifelines, and Lanyards.

1. The employer shall require and provide an approved safety harness suitable for the particular job or hazard exposure, which shall be attached by means of a tailrope or lanyard to a fixed anchor and adjusted to allow a maximum drop of 6 feet in case of fall, except when working on the fingerboard or when longer tag lines are necessary to perform the work required.

2. A separate life line shall be provided for each employee exposed to the particular job or hazard.

3. Safety harnesses and life lines shall be checked prior to each use and shall be repaired or replaced if found to be defective.

M. Emergency Escapes.

1. A Safety Buggy with an adequate braking device shall be installed on an escape line and kept at the derrickman's working platform.

2. The Safety Buggy and escape line shall be checked by the derrickman prior to each trip.

3. An escape line shall be a wire rope of suitable diameter and type. It shall be kept free of obstruction.

4. Tension on the escape line shall be such that a 180 lb. worker sitting in the Safety Buggy will touch the ground at least 20 feet from the anchor.

5. The length of the escape line shall be adequate to assure no less than a 45 degree descent from the vertical plane and shall be securely anchored both at the ground and to the rig.

N. Gases, Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists.

1. Occupational asbestos exposure shall be controlled in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1001 of the Utah Occupational Safety and Health Rules and Regulations.

2. Exposure to contaminants shall be limited by the regulations set forth in Chapter Z of the Utah Occupational Safety and Health Rules and Regulations.

O. Ionizing Radiation.

Sources of ionizing radiation not regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission shall be regulated by 29 CFR 1910.96 of the Utah Occupational Safety and Health Rules and Regulations.

P. Non-Ionizing Radiation.

Non-ionizing radiation exposure shall be regulated by 29 CFR 1926.54; and 29 CFR 1910.97.

Q. Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Gas.

1. Area Definitions

a. No Hazard Area = any well which will not penetrate a known H2S horizon.

b. Low Hazard Area = any well which will penetrate a formation containing H2S with a known .35 psi/ft. B.H. pressure gradient or less and/or in which the H2S zone has been effectively sealed off by casing- cementing and/or cementing method.

c. Medium Hazard Area = any well which will penetrate a formation containing H2S not defined in R614-2-3.Q.1.a. and b.

d. High Hazard Area = any operation expected to bring free H2S gas to the surface, i.e., DST (Drill Stem Testing), production testing, etc.

2. H2S Safety Equipment Procedures.

a. The well operator and employer will require that the following safety equipment shall be provided and operational on site before the hole is 500 feet above any formation as defined in R614-2-3.Q.1. suspected and/or known to contain H2S Gas.

(1) No Hazard Area

(a) No special H2S equipment shall be required.

(2) Low Hazard area:

(a) Two (2) thirty (30) minute self-contained breathing apparatuses for emergency use only.

(3) Medium Hazard Area:

(a) Air masks with emergency escape cylinders for each employee.

(b) Two (2) thirty (30) minute self-contained breathing apparatuses for emergencies.

(c) Three wind socks and/or streamers.

(d) Oxygen powered resuscitator with cylinder.

(e) 2-Gas detectors (pump type).

(f) A separate warning system.

(4) High Hazard Area:

(a) Manifold air masks with emergency escape cylinders for each employee.

(b) Two (2) thirty (30) minute self-contained breathing apparatuses for emergencies.

(c) Three wind socks and/or streamers.

(d) Oxygen powered resuscitator with cylinder.

(e) Two Gas detectors (pump type).

(f) A separate warning system.

3. The employer shall assure that in High Hazard Areas no employee is permitted on location without H2S safety training, except for instruction purposes.

4. The well operator shall provide two (2) means of egress on each location in a High Hazard Area.

5. A means of communications or instructions for emergency procedures shall be established and maintained on location along with the names and telephone numbers of the person or persons to be informed in case of emergencies.

6. Employee Instructions.

a. Employees shall be instructed in the use of all H2S safety equipment before being allowed on the location.

b. The instruction of personnel shall include the following elements.

c. Employees shall be informed of the characteristics of H2S and its hazards.

d. Proper first-aid procedures to be used in a H2S knock down.

e. Use of personal protective equipment.

f. Use and operation of H2S monitoring systems.

g. Corrective action and shut-down procedures.

7. The employer shall be able to show through training and/or experience that the person(s) giving H2S safety instruction is qualified to give such instructions.

8. Signs shall be posted 500 feet from the location, when possible, on each road leading to the location warning of the hazard of H2S.

9. All H2S Safety equipment shall be checked to assure readiness before each tour change.

R. Illumination.

1. Lighting in the work place shall be sufficient to enable the employees to see clearly enough to perform their work safely.

2. Vehicle lights shall not be used for lighting of rig operations in lieu of rig lights, except in emergency.

S. Sanitation.

1. Potable Water.

a. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided in all places of employment.

b. Portable containers used to dispense drinking water shall be capable of being tightly closed, and equipped with a tap. Water shall not be dipped from containers.

c. Any container used to distribute drinking water shall be clearly marked as to the nature of its contents and not used for any other purpose.

d. The common drinking cup is prohibited.

2. Toilet Facilities.

a. Under temporary field conditions at any work site, provisions shall be made to assure that not less than one toilet facility is available.

b. Toilets shall be maintained in a clean and sanitary condition.

3. Temporary Sleeping Quarters. When temporary sleeping quarters are provided, they shall be heated, ventilated, and lighted.

4. Washing Facilities. The employer shall provide adequate washing facilities for employees engaged in operations where contaminants may be harmful to the employees.

R614-2-4. Drilling Industry -- Fire Protection and Prevention.

A. Fire Protection.

1. The employer shall be responsible for the development of a fire protection program to be followed throughout all phases of operation work, and he shall provide for the firefighting equipment. As fire hazards occur, there shall be no delay in providing the necessary equipment.

2. Access to all available firefighting equipment shall be maintained at all times.

3. A minimum of four (4) 20#, Class B-C fire extinguishers or equivalent shall be conveniently located at the rig.

4. A minimum of two (2) 20#, Class B-C fire extinguishers or equivalent shall be conveniently located on well service units.

B. Fire Prevention.

1. All sources of ignition shall be prohibited at or in the vicinity of all operations that constitute a fire hazard, unless adequate protection is provided.

2. Smoking shall be prohibited at or in the vicinity of operations which constitute a fire hazard, and shall be conspicuously posted: "No Smoking".

3. An exhaust pipe from any internal combustion engine, located within 75 feet of any well bore, process vessel, oil storage tank, or other source of ignitable vapor, shall be so constructed and used so that any emission of flame along its length or at its end is prevented.

4. Burning stoves and open fires shall not be permitted within 75 feet of the wellbore, except for purpose of maintenance and repair.

5. Engine-driven light plants shall be located at least 75 feet from the wellbore unless properly protected to prevent source of ignition.

6. Oil and Grease Hazards. Oxygen cylinders and fittings shall be kept away from oil or grease.

7. When lighting a flare pit, the lighting shall be done from the upwind side. When there is no wind or when the wind direction is uncertain, no attempt shall be made to light the pit unless the operator can position himself in an explosive-free area. The use of hand thrown rags or similar flaming objects shall be prohibited.

a. A pilot flame shall be maintained at the end of the discharge line at all times when air, gas, or mist drilling is in progress.

C. Flammable Liquids.

1. General Requirements.

a. Only approved containers and portable tanks shall be used for storage and handling of flammable liquids. Approved safety cans shall be used for the handling and use of flammable liquids in quantities less than 5 gallons. For quantities of one gallon or less, only the original container or approved safety cans shall be used for storage, use, and handling of flammable liquids.

b. No material used for cleaning shall have a flashpoint less than 100 degrees F. Examples of materials which may have flashpoints below 100 degrees F. are Gasoline, Naphtha, etc.

c. No smoking or open flame shall be allowed within 25 feet of the handling of flammable liquids. Any engine being refueled shall be shut off during such refueling except diesel engines.

d. An electrical bond shall be maintained between containers when a flammable liquid is being transferred from one to the other.

e. Dispensing nozzles and valves shall be of the self-closing type.

f. Except for the fuel in the tanks of the operating equipment, no flammable fuel shall be stored within 75 feet of a wellbore.

g. Drainage from any fuel storage shall be in a direction away from the well and equipment.

2. Safety Procedures for Fuel Tanks

a. Propane or butane tanks shall be placed parallel to any side of the rig.

b. Fuel tanks shall be protected by crash rails or guards to prevent physical damage unless by virtue of their location they have this protection.

c. Fuel tank storage areas shall be kept free of weeds, debris, and other combustible material not necessary to the storage.

3. Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG)

a. Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) shall be handled in accordance with NFPA 58-69 "Standard for Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases," or according to the latest published addenda or revision of that code.

b. Utilization equipment shall have a thermal coupling or equivalent installed.

R614-2-5. Drilling Industry -- Signs, Signals and Barricades.

A. Prevention Signs and Tags.

1. General. Warning signs or symbols shall be visible at all times when work is being performed, and shall be removed or covered promptly when the hazards no longer exist.

a. Regulatory signs and barricades for Hydrogen Sulfide are covered in R614-2-3.Q.8.

2. Safety Warning Signs

a. Warning signs shall be posted to denote any unusual hazardous situation.

b. Warning signs shall be posted in areas where the use of personal protective equipment is required.

c. Identification signs shall be conspicuously posted to locate emergency equipment.

d. Storage areas and containers of poisonous, toxic, flammable, or explosive material shall be properly labeled and appropriately stored according to content.

3. Transformers.

Signs indicating danger and prohibiting unauthorized access shall be conspicuously displayed on the housing or other enclosure around electrical equipment.

B. Signaling.

Signals between supervisors, employees, or other persons involved shall be established and agreed upon prior to start of operations.

R614-2-6. Drilling Industry -- Materials Handling, Storage and Use.

A. General Requirements for Storage.

1. All materials stored in tiers shall be stacked, racked, blocked, interlocked, or otherwise secured to prevent sliding, falling, or collapse.

2. Aisles and passageways shall be kept clear to provide for the free and safe movement of material handling equipment or employees. Such areas shall be kept in good repair.

3. Noncompatible materials shall be segregated in storage.

4. Bagged materials shall be stacked by stepping back the layers and cross-keying the bags at least every 10 bags high.

B. Construction and Loading of Pipe Racks.

1. Construction of pipe racks shall be designed to support any load placed thereon.

2. Pipe racks shall be set level laterally on a stable foundation. They may slope front to back to facilitate laying down or picking up pipe.

3. Provision shall be made to prevent pipe, tubular material, or other round material from rolling off pipe racks.

4. No employee shall go between pipe racks and a load of pipe during loading, unloading, and transferring operations.

5. Pipe shall be loaded and unloaded, layer by layer, with bottom layer pinned or blocked securely on all 4 corners, and each successive layer effectively chocked or blocked.

6. Spacers shall be used, and evenly spaced between the layers of pipe or material on the rack.

7. When pipe is being moved or transferred between pipe racks, truck and trailer, the temporary supports for skidding or rolling shall be so constructed, placed, and anchored so as to support the load that is placed on them.

8. During freezing weather, pipe standing on end shall be positioned so as to afford proper drainage.

C. Rigging Equipment for Material Handling.

1. General.

a. Rigging equipment for material handling shall be checked prior to use on each shift and as necessary during its use to ensure that it is safe. Defective rigging equipment shall be removed from service.

b. Rigging equipment shall not be loaded in excess of its recommended safe working load.

2. Wire Ropes.

a. Protruding ends of strands in splices on slings and bridles shall be covered or blunted.

b. An eye splice made in any wire rope shall have not less than three full tucks. However, this requirement shall not operate to preclude the use of another form of splice or connection which can be shown to be as efficient and which is not otherwise prohibited.

c. Except for eye splices in the ends of wires and for endless rope slings, each wire rope used in hoisting or lowering, or in pulling loads shall consist of one continuous piece without knot or splice. Sand lines and winch lines are excluded.

d. Eyes in wire rope bridles, slings, or bull wires shall not be formed by knots.

e. When U-bolt wire rope clips are used to form eyes, The following table shall be used to determine the number and spacing of clips.

f. When used for eye splices, the U-bolt shall be applied so that the "U" section is in contact with the dead end of the rope.

3. Natural Rope and Synthetic Fiber.

Fiber ropes which are cut, frayed (through one or more strands), or that have been in contact with caustic, acid, or any other chemical that might weaken them shall be replaced immediately.

                                                    TABLE 2

                                      NUMBER AND SPACING OF U-BOLT WIRE ROPE CLIPS

          Improved plow     NUMBER OF CLIPS     Minimum
          steel rope        Drop     Other      Spacing
          diameter inches   forged   material   inches

             1/2               3        4          3
             5/8               3        4          3-3/4
             3/4               4        5          4-1/2
             7/8               4        5          5-1/4
             1                 5        6          6
             1-1/8             6        6          6-3/4
             1-1/4             6        7          7-1/2
             1-3/8             7        7          8-1/4
             1-1/2             7        7          9
                                                            

D. Transporting, Moving, and Storing Compressed Gas Cylinders.

1. Valve protection caps shall be in place and secured.

2. When cylinders are hoisted, they shall be secured on a cradle, slingboard, or pallet. They shall not be hoisted or transported by means of magnets or choker slings.

3. When cylinders are transported by powered vehicles, they shall be secured in a vertical position.

4. Valve protection caps shall not be used for lifting cylinders from one vertical position to another. Bars shall not be used under valves or valve protection caps to pry cylinders loose when frozen. Warm, not boiling water shall be used to thaw cylinders loose.

5. Cylinders shall be secured in an upright position and shall be separated in storage as to full and empty cylinders and shall be separated as to contents.

6. No person other than the gas supplier shall attempt to mix gases in a cylinder. No one except the owner of the cylinder or person authorized by him, shall refill a cylinder. No one shall use a cylinder's contents for purposes other than those intended by the supplier.

7. No damaged or defective cylinder shall be used.

R614-2-7. Drilling Industry -- Tools - Hand and Power.

A. General Requirements.

1. Condition of tools. All hand and power tools and similar equipment, whether furnished by the employer or the employees, shall be maintained in a safe condition.

2. All hand-held powered tools shall be equipped with a constant pressure switch that will shut off the power when the pressure is released.

B. Hand Tools.

1. Employers shall not issue or permit the use of unsafe hand tools.

2. Impact tools, such as drift pins, wedges, and chisels, shall be kept free of mushroomed heads.

3. The wooden handles of tools shall be kept free of splinters or cracks and shall be kept tight in the tool.

C. Power-Operated Hand Tools.

1. Electric power operated tools.

a. Electric power operated tools shall either be of the approved double-insulated type or grounded.

b. The use of electric cords for hoisting or lowering tools shall not be permitted.

2. Pneumatic Power Tools.

a. Pneumatic power tools shall be secured to the hose or whip by some positive means to prevent the tool from becoming accidentally disconnected.

b. Safety clips or retainers shall be securely installed and maintained on pneumatic impact (percussion) tools to prevent attachments from being accidentally expelled.

c. The manufacturer's safe operating pressure for hoses, pipes, valves, filters, and other fittings shall not be exceeded.

d. The use of hoses for hoisting or lowering tools is prohibited.

e. All hoses exceeding 1/2 inch inside diameter and having a pressure greater than 150 psi shall have a safety device at the source of supply or branch line to reduce pressure in case of hose failure.

3. Fuel Powered Tools.

a. All fuel powered tools shall be stopped while being refueled, serviced, or maintained.

b. When fuel powered tools are used in enclosed spaces, the applicable requirements for concentrations of toxic gases and use of personal protective equipment, as outlined in 29 CFR 1926.55 and 1926.103 shall apply.

4. Hydraulic Power Tools.

a. The fluid used in hydraulic powered tools shall be fire-resistant fluids approved under 30 CFR 1 to 199, and shall retain its operating characteristics at the most extreme temperatures to which it will be exposed.

b. The manufacturer's safe operating pressures for hose, valves, pipes, filters, and other fittings shall not be exceeded.

D. Abrasive Wheel Machinery.

1. Abrasive wheels shall be used only on machines provided with safety guards. Safety guards will be: spindle-end guards, tongue, and workrest guards.

2. Safety guards used on machines known as right angle head or vertical portable grinders shall have a maximum exposure angle of 180 degrees and the guard shall be so located so as to be between the operator and the wheel during use.

3. The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides for safety guards used on other portable grinding machines shall not exceed 180 degrees and the top half of the wheel shall be enclosed at all times.

E. Jacks-Lever and Ratchet, Screw, and Hydraulic, Except Rig Jacks.

1. The manufacturer's rated capacity shall be legibly marked on all jacks and shall not be exceeded.

2. All jacks shall have a positive stop to prevent overtravel.

3. Heavy capacity hydraulic jacks shall have a safety device which will cause the jacks to support the load in any position in event the jack malfunctions.

R614-2-8. Drilling Industry -- Welding and Cutting.

A. Welders and cutters shall be well trained in the safe practices that apply to their work.

B. Welding, cutting, and brazing shall not be done in the presence of explosive gas or fumes, or near combustible materials, except when performed in compliance with 29 CFR 1910 Subpart Q.

R614-2-9. Drilling Industry -- Electrical.

A. General Requirements.

1. Reference materials for electrical classifications are available at the UOSH office.

2. All electrical work, installation, and wire capacities shall be in accordance with the pertinent provisions of the National Electrical Code, 1990 Edition unless otherwise provided by regulations of this part.

B. Classification of Areas.

1. Drilling Wells. Areas surrounding wells in the process of drilling or being serviced by drilling rigs shall be classified as follows:

a. Well Head Area.

(1) When the derrick is not enclosed or is equipped with a wind-break (open top and V door) and the substructure is open to ventilation, the areas shall be classified as shown in Fig. I-1.

(2) When the derrick floor and substructure are enclosed, the areas shall be classified as shown in Fig. I-2.

b. Mud Tank.

(1) The area around a mud tank located outdoors with unrestricted ventilation shall be classified to the extent shown in Figure I-3.

(2) The area around a mud tank located in an enclosure shall be classed Class I, Div. II to the extent of the enclosure as shown in Fig. I-4.

c. Mud Ditch.

When an open ditch or trench is used to connect between mud tanks, or between shale shaker and mud tanks; or open, active mud pits located outdoors with unrestricted ventilation, the area shall be classified as shown for mud tanks in Fig. I-3.

d. Mud Pump

The area surrounding a mud pump shall be unclassified unless it is located in an area that is classified because of some other facility.

e. Shale Shaker.

(1) The area surrounding a shale shaker with unrestricted ventilation shall be classified as shown in Fig. I-5.

(2) When the shale shaker is located in an enclosure, the area shall be classified as Class I, Division II to the extent of the enclosure.

f. Desander - desilter

(1) A desander - desilter located in an open area or in an adequately ventilated enclosure shall be classified as shown in Fig. I-6.

(2) A desander - desilter located in an inadequately ventilated enclosure shall be classified as Class I, Division II to the extent of the enclosure.

g. Degasser.

The area surrounding a degasser which is a closed system, is unclassified except for the vent from the degasser, which shall be classified as shown in Fig. I-7.

h. Open Sump

The area surrounding an open sump which contains volatile, flammable liquid shall be classified the same as for a mud tank as shown in Fig. I-3.

i. Diverter line vent.

The area around the diverter line shall be classified as shown in Fig. I-7 for gas vent.

2. Producing Oil and Gas Wells.

Areas adjacent to producing oil and gas wells shall be classified as follows:

a. Flowing well.

(1) Area around a flowing well located in an open area is unclassified where a cellar or below grade sump is not present.

(2) Area around a flowing well located in an open area with a cellar or below grade sump shall be Class I Division I below grade and Class I Division II above grade to the extent shown in Fig. I-8.

b. Artificially lifted wells.

(1) Beam pumping well.

(a) Where a cellar or below grade sump is not present, the area around a pumping well shall be Class I Division II to the extent shown in Fig. I-9.

(b) Area around a beam pumping well where a cellar or below grade sump is present shall be classified Class I Division I below grade and Class I Division II above grade to the extent shown in Fig. I-10.

(2) Well equipped with submersible, electric motor-driven pump.

(a) Area around a well in an open area being produced with a submersible electric motor-driven pump is unclassified if a cellar or below grade sump is not present.

(b) Where a cellar below grade sump is present at a well produced with a submersible, electric motor- driven pump, Class I Division I and Division II areas shall be classified as shown in Fig. I-8.

(3) Well produced with hydraulic subsurface pump.

(a) Area around a well being lifted with a hydraulic subsurface pump is not classified when there is no cellar or below grade sump.

(b) Where a cellar is present at a well being lifted with hydraulic subsurface pump, Class I Division I and Division II area shall be classified as shown in Fig. I-8.

(4) Gas liftwell.

(a) The area around a gas lift well located in an open area is unclassified when there is no cellar or below grade sump.

(b) Areas around a gas lift well that has a cellar or below grade sump shall be classified as Class I, Division I or Division II as shown in Fig. I-8.

C. Grounding and Bonding.

1. Portable and/or Cord and Plug-connected Equipment.

a. The noncurrent-carrying metal parts of portable and/or plug-connected equipment shall be grounded.

b. Portable tools and appliances protected by an approved system of double insulation, or its equivalent, need not be grounded. Where such an approved system is employed, the equipment shall be distinctively marked.

2. Fixed Equipment. Exposed noncurrent-carrying metal parts of fixed electrical equipment, including motors, generators, frames and tracks of electrically operated cranes, electrically driven machinery, etc., shall be grounded.

3. Effective Grounding. The path from circuits, electrical equipment, structures and conduit or enclosure to ground shall have a maximum resistance to ground of 25 ohms. Where the resistance exceeds 25 ohms, one or more driven rod electrodes shall be connected to the ground side of the system to lower the resistance to 25 ohms maximum.

4. Extension Cords/Cables. Extension cords/cables used with portable electric tools and appliances shall be of three wire type.

5. Bonding.

a. Conductors used for bonding and grounding stationary and moveable equipment shall be of ample size to carry the anticipated current.

b. When attaching bonding and grounding clamps or clips, secure and positive metal-to-metal contact shall be made.

6. Temporary Wiring. All temporary wiring shall be shall be grounded.

D. Overcurrent Protection.

1. Overcurrent protection shall be provided by fuses or circuit breakers for each feed and branch circuit, and shall be based on the current-carrying capacity of the conductors supplied and the power load being used.

2. No overcurrent device shall be placed in any permanently grounded conductor, except where the overcurrent device simultaneously opens all conductors of the circuit or for motor running protection.

3. When fuses are installed or removed with one or both terminals energized, special tools insulated for the voltage shall be used.

E. Switches, Circuit Breakers, and Disconnecting Means.

1. Each disconnecting means for motors and appliances, and each service feeder or branch circuit at the point where it originates, shall be legibly marked to indicate its purpose unless located and arranged so the purpose is evident.

2. Disconnecting means shall be located or shielded so that employees will not be injured.

F. Lockouts and/or Tagging.

Where there is danger of machinery being started or electrical circuits being energized while repairs or maintenance work is being done, the electrical circuits shall be locked open and/or tagged. Where there is danger of machinery being started or of steam or air creating a hazard to workers while repairs or maintenance work is being done, the employees shall disconnect the lines or lock and tag the main valve closed or blank the line on all steam driven machinery, air driven machinery, pressurized lines or lines connected to such equipment if they would create a hazard to workers.

G. Electrical Equipment Installation and Maintenance.

1. General Requirements

a. Where different voltages, frequencies, or types of current (A.C. or D.C.) are to be supplied by portable cords, receptacles shall be of such design that attachment plugs used on such circuits are not interchangeable.

b. Attachment plugs or other connectors supplying equipment at more than 300 volts shall be of the skirted type or otherwise so designed that arcs will be confined.

c. Cable/cords passing through work areas shall be covered or elevated to protect it from damage which would create a hazard to employees.

d. Worn or frayed electric cables/cords shall not be used.

e. Extension cords/cables shall not be fastened with staples, hung from nails, or suspended by wire.

2. Facilities and Equipment.

a. Light plant generator shall have an adequate overload safety device.

b. All light cords and plug-ins shall be kept in good condition.

c. Rig lights shall be of an approved type for the area in which they are located.

d. Lamps and reflectors shall be cleaned frequently.

e. The rays of light shall be directed toward the objects to be illuminated, and away from the eyes of the worker.

3. Wiring and Electrical Equipment Permissible in Class I, Division II areas.

a. Wiring shall employ: Rigid threaded conduits, lead covered armoured cable, Type SO, SOW, STW, STO, GGW, W, Diesel Locomotive, or equivalent cable with approved connectors (vapor proof).

b. Electrical equipment including fixtures, plugs, receptacles, fittings and enclosures for switches and controllers shall be sealed and gasketted or totally enclosed gasketted with threaded hubs (vapor proof).

c. Motors: All A.C. motors shall be totally enclosed, fan-cooled type (TEFC) or equivalent. D.C. motors located in Class I, Division II areas will be purged (cooled) with air from a safe source.

R614-2-10. Drilling Industry -- Ladders.

A. Ladders.

1. Except where either permanent or temporary stairways or suitable ramps or runways are provided, ladders described in this chapter shall be used to give safe access to all elevations.

2. All ladders shall be maintained in a safe condition. All ladders shall be checked regularly, with the intervals between checks being determined by use and exposure.

3. Ladder requirements not specifically referenced in this part shall be in accordance with the State of Utah Occupational Safety and Health Rules and Regulations 29 CFR 1910.25, 26, and 27.

4. Rungs, cleats, and steps shall be free of splinters, sharp edges, burrs, or projections which may be a hazard.

5. Where there is a walking/working platform or access to a ladder of 24 inches or more above the floor or ground level, a step or steps of not more than 12 inches high shall be provided for access.

6. Step-across distance. The step-across distance from the nearest edge of ladder to the nearest edge of equipment or structure shall not be more than 12 inches.

7. Cages or wells shall be provided on ladders of more than 20 feet to a maximum unbroken length of 30 feet where a climbing device is not used.

8. All landing platforms shall be equipped with standard railings and toeboards, so arranged as to give safe access to the ladder.

9. The side rails of a ladder shall extend 3 feet above parapets and landing.

10. Ladder safety devices may be used on ladders over 20 feet in unbroken length in lieu of cage protection. All ladder safety devices, such as those that incorporate lifebelts, friction brakes, and sliding attachments shall meet the design requirements of the ladders which they serve.

R614-2-11. Drilling Industry -- Walking, Working Surfaces.

A. Guardrails, Handrails and Covers.

1. Guarding of Floor Openings and Floor Holes.

Floor openings and floor holes shall be guarded by a standard railing and toeboards and/or cover.

2. Guarding of Wall Openings.

Wall openings from which there is a drop of more than 4 feet shall be guarded.

3. Guarding of Open-Sided Floors, Platforms, and Runways

a. Every open-sided floor or platform 4 feet or more above adjacent floor or ground level shall be guarded by a standard railing, or equivalent.

b. Standard railing shall be provided on the inside of all mud tank runways unless other means are available to prevent an employee from falling into the mud tanks.

c. Regardless of height, open-sided floors, walkways, platforms, or runways above or adjacent to dangerous equipment and similar hazards shall be guarded with a standard railing and toeboard.

4. Stairway Railings and Guards.

Every flight of stairs having four or more risers shall be equipped with standard stair railings on open sides.

B. Floors, Stairways, and Platforms.

1. Floors, stairways, and platforms shall be free of dangerous projections or obstructions and shall be maintained in good repair and reasonably free from oil, grease, water, or other materials of similar nature. Where the type of operation necessitates working on slippery floor areas, such surfaces shall be protected against slipping by the use of mats, grates, cleats, or other methods to provide reasonable protection.

2. Each corner of a crown block shall be securely bolted or welded to the mast or derrick.

3. Each finger of a finger board shall be bolted or welded to its support beam.

4. Any temporary stabbing board or other temporary boards placed in the derrick shall be securely fastened.

5. On all derricks, ladder platforms shall be installed adjacent to, and shall provide safe access to the work platforms.

6. Ladder platforms are to be located at the crown of all drilling rigs.

7. With the exception of the stabbing board and derrick board, every platform erected on the inside of a derrick shall completely cover the space from the working edge of the platform back to the legs and girts of the derrick.

C. Exits, Access, and Egress.

1. Exits shall be provided to the outside on at least 3 sides of the derrick floor.

2. All work stations shall have two means of egress, except for hopper house.

3. No exit door of the derrick floor, including all doors of the doghouse, shall be held closed with a lock or outside latch while anyone is on the derrick floor.

4. No employee shall slide down any pipe, kelly hose, cable, or rope line except in the event of an extreme emergency.

5. No employee shall use the catline as a means of ascending to or descending from any point in the derrick except in an emergency. Even then, the rotary table shall be locked out and qualified employees shall operate the cathead and controls.

R614-2-12. Drilling Industry -- Hoisting Equipment.

A. Derricks and Cranes.

1. The employer shall comply with the manufacturer's specifications and limitations applicable to the operation of any derrick. Where manufacturer's specifications are not available, the limitations assigned to the equipment shall be based on the determinations of a qualified engineer competent in this field and such determinations will be appropriately documented and recorded.

2. Traveling Blocks shall have an operational limiting device or adequate crown timbers properly installed (Special Services are excluded).

3. Cranes mounted on barges.

a. When a crane is mounted on a barge, the rated load of a crane shall not exceed the original capacity specified by the manufacturer.

b. A load rating chart, with clearly legible letters and figures, shall be provided with each crane, and securely fixed at a location easily visible to the operator.

c. When load ratings are reduced to stay within the limits for list of the barge with the crane mounted on it, a new load rating chart shall be provided.

d. Cranes on barges shall be positively secured.

B. Truck-Mounted Masts and Derricks.

The employer shall require that truck-mounted derricks or masts are not moved while in a raised position. This does not apply to the skidding of a drilling rig.

C. Personnel Hoisting.

1. Well Drilling: Employees shall not ride the traveling blocks to or from the boards (except in cases of emergency).

2. Special Services: Riding hoisting equipment.

a. No employee shall ride traveling blocks when rods or tubing or any other downhole equipment is being moved.

b. Anyone riding the traveling blocks shall wear an approved safety harness with appropriate safety line anchored and adjusted to prevent a fall of over 6 feet.

3. The cat-line shall not be used as a personnel carrier except in an emergency.

D. Drawworks.

1. The drawworks shall not be operated without all guards in position and properly maintained.

2. If lubrication fittings are not accessible with guards in place, machinery shall be stopped for oiling and greasing.

3. The brakes, linkage, and brake flanges of the drawworks shall be checked every day and repaired or replaced as necessary.

E. Cathead.

1. A blunt smooth-edged divider to separate the first wrap of a line on a cathead shall be installed on all manually-operated rope catheads and the clearance between the device and the friction surface of the cathead shall not exceed 1/2 of an inch.

2. The friction surface and flanges of a cathead on which a rope is manually operated shall be smooth and the diameter of the cathead between the flanges shall be uniform throughout its length with an allowable tolerance of 3/8 of an inch.

3. The key seat and projecting key on a cathead shall be covered with a smooth thimble or plate.

4. When the cathead is unattended, no rope or line shall be left wrapped on or in contact with the cathead.

5. A qualified employee shall be at the controls while a cathead is in use. He shall stop the rotation of the cathead immediately in event of an emergency.

6. No splice other than by the manufacturer shall be allowed to come into contact with the friction surface of the cathead.

7. Each cathead using chain shall be equipped with a manually operated cathead clutch or with another device adequate to keep the rotation of the cathead under control when it is in use. The clutch or device shall be of the "nongrab" type and shall release automatically when not manually held in the engaged position.

8. Every chain used in a spinning line shall have a fiber tailrope between 8 inches and 12 inches in length fastened to the pipe end of the chain.

9. Connections between lengths of cathead chain, tong chains, and spinning chain shall be of the connecting link or swivel type and of strength equal to the lighter chain. Connecting links and swivels shall be of a size and type suitable for the chain in use.

10. The operator of a cathead shall keep his operating area clear at all times. That portion of the catline not being used shall be kept coiled or spooled.

F. Wire Ropes.

1. All hoisting lines (wire ropes) shall be visually checked by a competent person daily, and shall be thoroughly inspected at least each 30 days in conjunction with a ton-mile program, or a record made of each 30 day inspection which shall designate defects and deterioration. When the wire rope is slipped or replaced, it shall be recorded on the inspection report as to date and length of wire rope removed. Such written report must be kept on file at the drilling rig and local office.

2. A dead-line anchor for a drilling line shall be so constructed, installed, and maintained that its strength shall at least equal the working strength of the hoisting line.

3. All lines and sand lines shall be visually checked daily when in use. At this time a determination shall be made as to whether the hoisting line shall be cut to bring a new line into the system, or replaced. In no event shall the hoisting line or sand line be allowed to remain in service when the following numbers of broken wires appear in any section of the line:

                                                    TABLE 3

                                                 BROKEN WIRE-ROPE TABLE

          Construction          Number of      Number of
                                Broken Wires   Broken Wires
                                In One         In One
                                Rope Lay       Strand in
                                               One Lay

           6 x 7                     7             3
           6 x 19 Seale             11             4
           6 x 21 Seale or FW       13             5
           6 x 25 FW                18             6
           6 x 31                   19             6
           6 x 36                   21             7
           18 x 7                   18             3
           19 x 7                   18             3
           8 x 19 Seale             16             4
           8 x 25 FW                25             6
                                                            

4. In addition to the above criteria, a hoisting line or sand line shall be removed from service when any of the following conditions exist:

a. When end connections are corroded, cracked, bent, worn, or improperly applied.

b. When evidence of severe kinking, crushing, cutting, or unstranding are noted.

R614-2-13. Drilling Industry -- Blasting and the Use of Explosives.

A. The employer shall permit only authorized and qualified persons to use, handle and/or transport explosives.

B. Transportation of explosives shall meet the provisions of the Department of Transportation regulations.

C. Explosives and related materials shall be stored in approved facilities required under 27 CFR 55 Commerce in Explosives adopted by reference.

D. A blaster shall be qualified in the field of transporting, storing, handling, and use of explosives and have a working knowledge of Federal, State, and Local Laws which pertains to explosives.

R614-2-14. Drilling Industry -- Machine Guarding.

A. All belts, gears, shafts, pulleys, sprockets, spindles, drums, fly wheels, or other reciprocating or rotating parts, with the exception of the cathead, shall be guarded by a guard of sufficient strength to prevent any person from coming in contact therewith, unless they are guarded by location.

B. A rotary table shall have a substantially constructed metal guard adequately covering the outer edge of the table and extending downward to completely cover all the exposed rotating side of the table including the pinion gear.

C. Machinery shall not be operated without all guards properly maintained and in position; except during maintenance, repair, or rigup work or when limited testing may be performed by a qualified person.

D. No employee shall clean or lubricate any machinery where there is danger of contact with a moving part until such machinery has been stopped.

E. Any counterweight above the derrick floor when not fully enclosed shall run away from the working surfaces or be guarded.

F. The employer shall require that the mast crown is equipped with sheave guards which shall prevent the hoisting lines from being displaced from the sheaves during operations or when being raised to or lowered from the operating position.

G. When maintenance or servicing is to be accomplished on electrical lines, air lines, gas lines, or other lines containing hazardous materials, the line being worked on shall be rendered safe by emptying, purging, disconnecting, or other means before work is begun.

R614-2-15. Drilling Industry -- Overwater Operations.

A. When work is performed over water, employees shall be instructed in proper water entry procedures to be used.

B. An emergency means of escape from platforms shall be provided when working over water.

C. Coast Guard approved life jackets or work vests shall be available for and worn by each employee when performing operations over water.

D. Due consideration shall be given when dispatching vessels consistent with weather conditions, sizes of vessels, loading, and other factors.

E. Decks of all vessels shall be kept clean of oil, grease, debris, and free of excess equipment at all times.

F. Wireline units, power packs, tool boxes, and other equipment shall be securely tied down once it has been loaded on a vessel to be transported to or from inland water locations.

G. Mobile service units (when working off a barge) shall be properly secured with chains or wire rope and load binders once it has been spotted and when it is enroute to and from locations.

H. Tag lines shall be used to guide and steady equipment being loaded or unloaded from vessels on inland water locations.

I. It shall be the responsibility of the person skippering a vessel to determine when it is safe or unsafe to tie up or jack up on a well site.

J. When a crane is being used to transfer employees over water, employees shall wear a life jacket or work vest and shall not ride on anything other than an approved personnel net.

K. When handling equipment with a side loader type marine unit hauler the operator shall not lift or lower the base of the equipment being handled below the level of the ground or dock.

L. The operator shall not lift or lower a heavy load with a side loader boom without first extending jacks or outriggers.

R614-2-16. Drilling Industry -- Anchoring and Guy Wires.

Each derrick requiring anchoring or guying, shall follow the manufacturer's recommendations for guying and anchoring. If the manufacturer's recommendations are not available, an appropriate survey by a qualified engineer shall be made. A copy of the manufacturer's recommendations or a signed copy of the engineer's survey shall be made available for inspection on each derrick.

R614-2-17. Drilling Industry -- Air and Hydraulic Pressure.

A. Safety Procedures for Air Compressors.

1. Air compressors used or operated shall be constructed, installed, operated, and repaired to conform to the Engineering Standards of ASME and ANSI.

2. All air compressors shall have at least one air pressure regulator to control proper air flow.

3. The safety relief (safety pop-off) valve on the main air tank shall be checked periodically and kept in proper working order.

4. There shall be no valve in the discharge opening of a safety relief valve or in the discharge pipe connected thereto.

5. The piping connected to the pressure side and discharge side of a safety relief valve shall not be smaller than the normal pipe size openings of the device.

6. The piping from the discharge side of the safety relief device shall be securely tied down.

7. The piping from the discharge side of the safety relief valve shall be sloped in order to drain liquids.

8. All valves and pressure control devices shall be kept in the proper working order.

9. Hydraulic pressure lines shall not be subjected to pressures exceeding those recommended by the manufacturer.

B. Hydraulic Tong Control Mechanism.

1. The input pressure line on power tongs shall be disconnected or disengaged before any repair, replacement, or other work of a similar nature is done on tongs, chains, dies, or their component parts.

2. Pressure lines (hydraulic or air) shall have a safety relief valve which shall never be set higher than manufacturer's specifications for the working pressure of the lines or valve.

3. Hydraulic tongs shall be backed up with a safety device able to withstand the full torque of the power tool.

C. Mud Pits and Tanks, Mud Pumps, Piping and Hoses.

1. All fixed mud guns used for jetting shall be pinned or hobbled when in use and unattended.

2. Hoses shall not be used for jetting operations.

3. When necessary for an employee to enter a mud tank which has contained toxic fluid, adequate personal protective equipment shall be utilized or the tank shall be purged of all harmful substances.

4. Clamps and safety lines or chains shall be used to fasten the kelly hose at the standpipe end to the derrick and at the swivel end to the swivel housing, and all other flexible mud lines shall be appropriately secured.

5. The suction pit or tanks used for the circulation of flammable materials shall not be within 75 feet of well bore.

6. All mud pumps associated with a drilling rig shall be equipped with a safety pressure relief valve and an operating gauge in the system.

7. The safety pressure relief valve shall be set to discharge at a pressure not in excess of the established working pressure of the pump, pipe, and fittings.

8. A guard shall be placed around the shearing pin and spindle of a safety pressure relief valve.

9. The discharge from a safety pressure relief valve shall be piped to a place where it will not endanger employees.

10. There shall be no valve between a pump and its safety pressure relief valve.

11. The piping connected to the pressure side and discharge side of a safety pressure relief valve shall not be smaller than the normal pipe size opening of valve.

12. The piping on the discharge side of a safety pressure relief valve shall be properly secured.

R614-2-18. Drilling Industry -- Drilling Operations.

A. When maintenance or servicing is to be accomplished on power-driven equipment, the immediate source of power to the individual piece of equipment to be worked on shall be locked out. When maintenance or servicing is to be accomplished on electrical lines, air lines, gas lines, or other lines containing hazardous materials, the line being worked on shall be rendered safe by emptying, purging, disconnecting, or other means before work is begun.

B. Drillers shall never engage the rotary clutch without watching the rotary table.

C. Tools or other materials shall not be carried up or down a ladder unless properly secured to the body, leaving both hands free for climbing.

D. The hoisting line (wire rope) shall not be removed from the drum until the traveling blocks are to be laid on the derrick floor, or the traveling blocks are to be held suspended by a separate wire rope.

E. The hoisting line (wire rope) shall not be in direct contact with any derrick member, any stationary equipment, or material in the derrick except the crown block and any traveling block sheaves, a line spooler, a line stabilizer or weight indicator.

F. Every overhead sheave or pulley on which a line spooler counterweight rope runs shall be fastened securely to its support.

G. Every rig shall be equipped with a safety valve (Kelly Cock) with connections for each type of tool joint being used.

H. Blowout Prevention Equipment. While a well is being drilled, tested, completed, reconditioned, or is otherwise being worked on, blowout prevention equipment shall be installed and used in accordance with recognized standards and shall be reasonably adequate to keep the well under control at all times. The blowout prevention equipment provided shall be approved by the State of Utah Oil, Gas, and Mining Division.

I. Spinning chains shall not be handled near the rotary table while it is in motion. Workers shall not place the chain on the joint of pipe in the mouse hole while the table is rotating.

J. Chains used in connection with drilling or production operations shall be suitable for the type of service. Chains used in a spinning line, in a long line, or on a cathead must be of an approved type.

K. Every drilling rig shall be equipped with a reliable weight indicator.

L. Any weight indicator hung above the floor shall be secured to the derrick by means of a wire rope safety line or chain.

M. Every test plug used above the derrick floor shall be attached to the elevator links by safety line or chain.

N. The operator shall not leave the brake without tying the brake down or securing it with adequate counterbalance unless the drawworks is equipped with an automatic feed control.

O. The operator shall not engage the rotary clutch until the rotary table is clear of personnel and material.

P. The operator shall not leave the controls while the hoisting drum is on motion, except when drilling.

Q. Each rotary tong shall be securely attached to the derrick or a backup post with adequate wire rope safety lines.

R. A mud box or other effective means shall be provided on all rigs to convey any fluids away from the derrick floor while pulling drill stem test or breaking wet joints.

S. Hoses, lines, or chains shall not be handled or used near the rotary table while it is in motion.

T. A kelly pull-back post shall be provided for pulling the kelly back to the rat hold. The pull- back post shall be secured either to the derrick foundation, side sills, or floor sills, and shall not be attached to or in contact with the derrick legs, girts, or braces.

U. Whenever drill pipes, drill collars, or tubing are racked in the derrick provision shall be made for drainage of any fluids or gases in the stands.

V. The toolpusher (or other qualified employee) shall be in charge and present during the operation of raising or lowering a derrick.

W. The employer shall not allow employees under or in a derrick being raised or lowered.

X. No employee shall handle a traveling hoisting line unless he uses a suitable hand guard which shall be secured to the derrick.

Y. The rotary table shall not be used for the final making up or initial breaking out of a pipe connection.

Z. All pipe and drill collars racked in a derrick shall be adequately secured to prevent them from falling across the derrick.

AA. Safety clamps used on drill collars, flush joint pipe, or similar equipment for the purpose of preventing its falling in the well when not held by the elevator, shall be removed from the pipe and drill collars before racking.

BB. Racking foundations shall be designed to withstand the load of racked pipe and drill collars.

R614-2-19. Drilling Industry -- Special Services.

A. Special Services.

1. The owner/operator shall require that all applicable requirements of other sections of these Rules and Regulations, in addition to the following requirements, shall apply to Special Services and Operations.

2. The supervisor of the special service shall hold a pre-job meeting with his crew to review responsibilities for the operations to be performed.

3. Special services fire extinguishers shall be placed in an accessible position.

4. Precautions shall be taken to prevent personnel or vehicles from crossing under or over unprotected wire lines, pressurized hoses, or pipe.

5. There shall be a minimum number of employees in the derrick or within 6 feet of the wellbore during the time a swab line or other wire line is being run in the hole.

6. Smoking or open fires shall be permitted only in designated areas.

7. A frozen flow line or hose shall not knowingly be flexed or hit.

8. Line wipers shall be adequately secured.

9. Oil savers should not be adjusted while the line is in motion except by remote means.

10. Only a qualified person shall operate the cathead.

11. All discharge lines shall be laid with sufficient flexible joints, preventing rigidity so as to prevent excess vibration at wellbore.

12. When using an open ended flow line to flow or bleed off a well, it shall be secured at the end of the flow line and at each 30 foot interval before opening the flow line.

B. Mud Pits and Tanks.

1. Portable tanks shall be located where it is not possible for employees or equipment to come into contact with overhead power lines.

2. All valves and gauges shall be checked to be sure there is no pressure on the lubricator before working on or removing it. Prior to breaking out (rigging down), all pressure shall be bled off the lines that are to be broken out.

3. A lubricator or other adequate control devices shall be used to allow the removal of the downhole tool under controlled conditions.

4. Only necessary personnel shall be permitted near the pressurized lubricator, flow lines, and wellbore.

5. All wellbore adapters, wireline valves, and lubricating equipment shall be of such a design, strength, and material to withstand the maximum surface pressure of the well and the lateral movement of the lubricator.

C. Safety Procedures for Drill Stem Tests.

1. Initial opening of drill stem test tools shall be restricted to daylight hours only.

2. Test line and valves shall be checked, and the test line shall be securely anchored at each end and at each 30 foot interval.

3. When taking a drill stem test, and hydrocarbons appear at the surface, it shall be mandatory that such hydrocarbons are reversed out before coming out of the hole.

4. Drill stem tests shall not be taken in known or expected zones containing H2S with tubular goods of strengths less than Grade "E" drill pipe.

5. All drill stem tests in known or expected zones containing H2S shall be reversed out. This shall be done in daylight hours only.

6. A reversing mechanism shall be included in the test tool assembly in order to be able to reverse.

7. The kelly hose shall not be used as part of the test line.

D. Treating.

1. The special services supervisor shall personally check to see that all valves in discharge lines are open before giving orders to pump.

2. During operations each employee designated to handle the pumping shall remain constantly at his designated position while the pump is in operation, unless relieved by an authorized employee as directed by the supervisor on that job.

3. Cementing pressure shall not exceed equipment maximum safe working pressure.

4. All acidizing, fracturing, and hot oil trucks and tanks shall be at least 75 feet from the wellbore.

5. The services supervisor shall see that all flammable fluid spilled on location is adequately covered with dirt before pumping operations start.

6. Flammable fluids shall not be bled back into open measuring tanks on equipment designed for pumping.

7. All spilled oil or acid shall be covered or properly disposed of after breakout with adequate precautions taken to prevent personnel from contact with such material.

8. All equipment that could produce a source of ignition shall not be permitted within 75 feet of any tank containing a flammable material.

9. When pumping a flammable fluid, all electrical or internal combustion equipment not used for performance of the job, and all fires shall be shut down or off during treatment.

10. All blending equipment used in fracturing operations shall be grounded to a conductive rod driven into the ground and all sand hauling equipment, unloading sand into blender hopper, shall be "electrically bonded" to the blender.

11. All supercharged suction hoses shall be covered with hose covers to deflect fluids when pumping flammable fluids.

R614-2-20. Drilling Industry -- Safety Procedures for Air and Gas Drilling.

A. Drilling compressors (air or gas) shall be located at least 150 feet from the wellbore and in a direction away from the discharge or blooie line.

B. The air or gas discharge line (blooie line) shall be laid in as nearly a straight line as possible from the drilling head. It must be at least 150 feet in length. This discharge line shall be securely coupled and anchored to prevent movement. It shall be laid into a discharge pipe in such a direction from the wellbore as to allow prevailing winds to carry produced or circulated gas away from the rig.

C. All combustible material shall be kept at least 100 feet away from the discharge line.

D. The air line from the compressors to the standpipe shall be of adequate strength to withstand at least the maximum discharge pressure of the compressors used, and shall be checked daily by the compressor operator for any evidence of damage or weakness.

E. All cars, trucks, house trailers, etc., shall be parked at least 75 feet from the wellbore, except when delivering equipment or supplies.

F. Smoking shall not be allowed within 75 feet of the drilling rig while drilling air or gas.

G. Designated employees shall be shown and taught how to use control units and the blowout preventer and all fire fighting equipment.

H. Designated employees shall be shown and taught how to use the emergency shut-off equipment during gas drilling.

I. All pipe connections carrying gas or air to or from the wellbore shall be made up tightly. All lines and connections shall be frequently checked for leaks.

J. In the case of gas drilling, a shut-off valve shall be installed on the main feeder line at least 150 feet from the wellbore; in the case of air drilling, the shut-off valve shall be located near the compressors.

K. When making a connection, the standpipe valve shall be closed and the bleed-off line shall be open before breaking a tool joint.

L. One Class B-C fire extinguisher of at least 150 lbs. dry chemical capacity or equivalent shall be stationed on the job in addition to 4-20# capacity, or their equivalent, fire extinguishers with a Class B-C rating.

KEY

safety

Date of Enactment or Last Substantive Amendment

December 9, 2009

Notice of Continuation

October 22, 2012

Authorizing, Implemented, or Interpreted Law

34A-6


Additional Information

Contact

For questions regarding the content or application of rules under Title R614, please contact the promulgating agency (Labor Commission, Occupational Safety and Health). A list of agencies with links to their homepages is available at http://www.utah.gov/government/agencylist.html or from http://www.rules.utah.gov/contact/agencycontacts.htm.