Utah Administrative Code
The Utah Administrative Code is the body of all effective administrative rules as compiled and organized by the Division of Administrative Rules (see Subsection 63G-3-102(5); see also Sections 63G-3-701 and 702).
NOTE: For a list of rules that have been made effective since November 1, 2016, please see the codification segue page.
NOTE TO RULEFILING AGENCIES: Use the RTF version for submitting rule changes.
R994. Workforce Services, Unemployment Insurance.
Rule R994-406. Fraud, Fault and Nonfault Overpayments.
As in effect on November 1, 2016
Table of Contents
- R994-406-101. Claimant Responsible for Providing Complete, Correct Information.
- R994-406-201. Nonfault Overpayments.
- R994-406-202. Method of Repayment of Nonfault Overpayments.
- R994-406-203. Waiver of Recovery of Nonfault Overpayments.
- R994-406-301. Claimant Fault.
- R994-406-302. Repayment and Collection of Fault Overpayments.
- R994-406-401. Claimant Fraud.
- R994-406-402. Burden and Standard of Proof in Fraud Cases.
- R994-406-403. Fraud Disqualification and Penalty.
- R994-406-404. Repayment and Collection of Fraud Overpayments and Penalties.
- R994-406-405. Future Eligibility in Fraud Cases.
- R994-406-406. Agency Error in Determining Disqualification Periods.
- Date of Enactment or Last Substantive Amendment
- Notice of Continuation
- Authorizing, Implemented, or Interpreted Law
(1) The claimant is responsible for providing all of the information requested in written documents as well as any verbal request from a Department representative. The claimant is also responsible for following all Department instructions.
(2) The claimant can not shift responsibility for providing correct information to another person such as a spouse, parent, or friend. The claimant is responsible for all information required on his or her claim.
(1) If the claimant followed all instructions and provided complete and correct information as required in R994-406-101(1) and then received benefits to which he or she was not entitled due to an error made by the Department or an employer, the claimant is not at fault in the creation of the overpayment.
(2) The claimant is not liable to repay overpayments created through no fault of the claimant except that the sum will be deducted from any future benefits.
Even though the claimant is without fault in the creation of the overpayment, 50% of the claimant's weekly benefit amount will be deducted from any future benefits payable to him or her until the overpayment is repaid. No billings will be made and no collection procedures will be initiated.
(1) The Department may waive recovery of a nonfault overpayment if the claimant:
(a) is currently eligible to receive unemployment benefits from the state of Utah and has filed a weekly claim against Utah within the last 27 days,
(b) requests a waiver within 10 days of notification of the opportunity to request a waiver, within 10 days of the first offset of benefits following a reopening, or upon a showing of a significant change in the claimant's financial circumstances. Good cause will be considered if the claimant can show the failure to request a waiver within these time limitations was due to circumstances which were beyond the claimant's control or were compelling and reasonable; and
(c) can show that recovery of the 50% offset as provided in R994-406-202 would render the claimant unable to pay for the basic needs of survival for his or her immediate family, dependents and other household members.
(i) The claimant must provide verification of financial resources and the social security numbers of family members, dependents and household members.
(ii) Before granting the waiver, the Department must consider all potential financial resources of the claimant, the claimant's family, dependents and other household members.
(iii) "Unable to pay for the basic needs of survival" means "economically disadvantaged" and is defined as 70% of the Lower Living Standard Income Level (LLSIL). Therefore, if the claimant's total family resources in relation to family size are not in excess of 70% of the LLSIL, the waiver will be granted provided the economic circumstances are not expected to change within the next 90 days. Individual expenses will not be considered. Available financial resources, current income, and anticipated income will be included and averaged for the three months.
(2) Any nonfault overpayment outstanding at the time the request is granted is forgiven and the claimant has no further repayment obligation.
(3) A waiver cannot be granted retroactively for any payments made against an overpayment or any of the overpayment which has already been offset except if the offset was made pending a decision on a timely waiver request which is ultimately granted.
(4) A claimant with an outstanding nonfault overpayment can also apply for an offer in compromise as provided in R944-305-1201.
(1) Elements of Fault.
Fault is established if all three of the following elements are present, or as provided in subsection (3) and (4) of this section. If one or more elements cannot be established, the overpayment does not fall under the provisions of Subsection 35A-4-405(5).
Benefits were paid to which the claimant was not entitled.
Benefits were paid based on incorrect information or an absence of information which the claimant reasonably could have provided.
The claimant had sufficient notice that the information might be reportable.
(2) Claimant Responsibility.
The claimant is responsible for providing all of the information requested by the Department regarding his or her Unemployment Insurance claim. If the claimant has any questions about his or her eligibility for unemployment benefits, or the Department's instructions, the claimant must ask the Department for clarification before certifying to eligibility. If the claimant fails to obtain clarification, he or she will be at fault in any resulting overpayment.
(3) Receipt of Settlement or Back-Pay.
(a) A claimant is "at fault" for the resulting overpayment if he or she fails to advise the Department that grievance procedures are being pursued which may result in payment of wages for weeks during which he or she claims benefits.
(b) If the claimant advises the Department prior to receiving a settlement that he or she has filed a grievance with the employer and makes an assignment directing the employer to pay to the Department that portion of the settlement equivalent to the amount of unemployment compensation received, the claimant will not be "at fault" if an overpayment is created due to payment of wages attributable to weeks for which the claimant received benefits. If the grievance is resolved in favor of the claimant and the employer was properly notified of the wage assignment, the employer is liable to immediately reimburse the Department upon settlement of the grievance. If reimbursement is not made to the Department consistent with the provisions of the assignment, collection procedures will be initiated against the employer.
(c) If the claimant refuses to make an assignment of the wages claimed in a grievance proceeding, benefits will be withheld on the basis that the claimant is not unemployed because of anticipated receipt of wages. In this case, the claimant should file weekly claims and if back wages are not received when the grievance is resolved, benefits will be paid for weeks properly claimed provided the claimant is otherwise eligible.
(4) Receipt of Retirement Income.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, a claimant who could be eligible for retirement income but does not apply until after unemployment benefits have been paid, is "at fault" for any overpayment resulting from a retroactive payment of retirement benefits. See R994-401-203(1)(d) and (2)
(5) Correcting Earlier Weekly Claims.
If a claimant reports incorrect information about his or her income or earnings, the claimant must immediately contact the Department to correct the information. A claimant who contacts the Department to correct reported income is considered to be "at fault" and is responsible for repaying any resulting overpayment even if at the time the claimant filed the weekly claim for benefits he or she was unaware of the correct income or earnings. A claimant who fails to contact the Department to correct inaccurately reported earnings may be subject to fraud penalties under subsection R994-406-401.
(1) When the claimant has been determined to be "at fault" in the creation of an overpayment, the overpayment must be repaid. If the claimant is otherwise eligible and files for additional benefits during the same or any subsequent benefit year, 100% of the benefit payment to which the claimant is entitled will be used to reduce the overpayment.
(2) Discretion for Repayment.
(a) Full restitution is required for all fault overpayments except as provided in R994-305-1201. However, legal collection proceedings may be held in abeyance at the Department's discretion and the overpayment will be deducted from future benefits payable during the current or subsequent benefit years. Discretion will only be exercised if the Department or the employer share fault in the creation of the overpayment but it is determined the claimant was more at fault under the provisions of rule R994-403-119e.
(3) Collection Procedures.
(a) The Department will send an initial overpayment notice on all outstanding fault or fraud overpayments. If, after 15 days, the claimant does not either make payment in full or enter into an installment payment agreement as provided in subsection (4) below the account is considered delinquent and the claimant is notified that a warrant will be filed unless a payment is received or an installment agreement entered into within 15 days. However, there may be other circumstances under which a warrant may be filed on any outstanding overpayment. A warrant attaches a lien to any personal or real property and establishes a judgment that is collectible under Utah Rules of Civil Procedure.
(b) All outstanding overpayments on which a lien has been filed are reported to the State Division of Finance for collection whereby any refunds due to the claimant from State income tax or any such rebates, refunds, or other amounts owed by the state and subject to legal attachment may be applied against the overpayment.
(c) All overpayments that are past due, legally enforceable, and attributable to fraud or the claimant's failure to report earnings shall be submitted to the Treasury Offset Program whereby the Secretary of the Treasury can offset Federal tax refund payments to be applied against the approved overpayment. Only overpayments where a valid warrant has been filed for failure to repay, that lack an installment agreement or are not current on approved installment agreement payments will be subject to the Treasury Offset Program.
(d) No warrant will be issued on fault overpayments provided the claimant entered into an installment agreement within 30 days of the issuance of the initial overpayment notice and all payments are made in a timely manner in accordance with the installment agreement.
(4) Installment Payments.
(a) If repayment in full has not been made within 30 days of the initial overpayment notice or the claimant has not voluntarily entered into an installment agreement or offer in compromise as provided in R994-305-1201, the Department will allow the claimant to pay in installments by notifying the claimant in writing of the minimum installment payment which the claimant is required to make. If the claimant is unable to make the minimum installment payments, the claimant may request a review within ten days of the date written notice is mailed.
(b) Whether voluntarily or involuntary, installment payments will be established as follows:
If the entire overpayment is:
(i) $3,000 or less, the monthly installment payment is equal to 50% of claimant's weekly benefit entitlement
(ii) $3,001 to 5,000, the monthly installment payment is equal to 100% of claimant's weekly benefit entitlement
(iii) $5,001 to 10,000 the monthly installment payment is equal to 125% of claimant's weekly benefit entitlement
(iv) $10,001 or more the monthly installment payment is equal to 150% of claimant's weekly benefit entitlement
(c) Installment agreements will not be approved in amounts less than those established above except in cases where the claimant meets the requirements of economically disadvantaged as defined in R994-406-203(1)(b)(iii). On a periodic basis the Department may send notice to the claimant requesting verification of his or her disadvantaged status. If the claimant fails to provide the verification as requested, or no longer qualifies for a lesser installment payment, the Department will send the claimant a new monthly payment amount. The new installment payment amount may be in accordance with the percentages in subparagraph (b) or a lesser amount depending on the information received from the claimant.
(d) Minimum monthly installment agreement payments must be received by the Department by the last day of each month. Payments not made timely are considered delinquent.
(5) Offsetting overpayments with subsequent eligible weeks.
If an overpayment is set up under Section R994-406-201 or R994-406-301 for weeks paid on a claim, the claimant may repay the overpayment by filing for open weeks in the same benefit year after the claim has been exhausted, provided the claimant is otherwise eligible. 100% of the compensation amount for each eligible week claimed will be credited to the established overpayment(s) up to the total amount of the outstanding overpayment balance owed to the Department.
(1) All three elements of fraud must be proved to establish an intentional misrepresentation sufficient to constitute fraud. See section 35A-4-405(5). The three elements are:
(i) Materiality is established when a claimant makes false statements or fails to provide accurate information for the purpose of obtaining;
(A) any benefit payment to which the claimant is not entitled, or
(B) waiting week credit which results in a benefit payment to which the claimant is not entitled.
(ii) A benefit payment received by fraud may include an amount as small as one dollar over the amount a claimant was entitled to receive.
A claimant must have known or should have known the information submitted to the Department was incorrect or that he or she failed to provide information required by the Department. The claimant does NOT have to know that the information will result in a denial of benefits or a reduction of the benefit amount. Knowledge can also be established when a claimant recklessly makes representations knowing he or she has insufficient information upon which to base such representations. A claimant has an obligation to read material provided by the Department and to ask a Department representative if he or she has a question about what information to report.
Willfulness is established when a claimant files claims or other documents containing false statements, responses or deliberate omissions. If a claimant delegates the responsibility to personally provide information or allows access to his or her Personal Identification Number (PIN) so that someone else may file a claim, the claimant is responsible for the information provided or omitted by the other person, even if the claimant had no advance knowledge that the information provided was false or important information was omitted. The claimant is responsible for securing the debit card (card) issued by the Department. Securing the card means that the card and the PIN are never kept together, the card is kept in a secure location, and the PIN is not known by anyone but the claimant. If a claimant loses his or her card, the claimant must report the loss of the card to the Department and change his or her PIN immediately even if the claimant is not currently filing weekly claims for benefits. If the claimant fails to report the loss of the card and change the PIN immediately, or fails to secure the card, the claimant will be liable for claims made and money removed from the card.
(2) The Department relies primarily on information provided by the claimant when paying unemployment insurance benefits. Fraud penalties do not apply if the overpayment was the result of an inadvertent error. Fraud requires a willful misrepresentation or concealment of information for the purpose of obtaining unemployment benefits.
(3) The absence of an admission or direct proof of intent to defraud does not prevent a finding of fraud.
(4) A claimant is required, under R994-403-114c, to immediately notify the Department if the claimant is incarcerated. Upon notification, the Department will stop all unemployment benefits to the claimant until the claimant notifies the Department of his or her release from incarceration. If a claimant fails to notify the Department of his or her incarceration, any claims made during the incarceration period will be considered fraudulent.
(1) The Department has the burden of proving each element of fraud.
(2) The elements of fraud must be established by clear and convincing evidence. There does not have to be an admission or direct proof of intent.
(1) Penalty Cannot be Modified.
The Department has no authority to reduce or otherwise modify the period of disqualification or the monetary penalties imposed by statute. The Department cannot exercise repayment discretion for fraud overpayments and these amounts are subject to all collection procedures.
(2) Week of Fraud.
(a) A "week of fraud" shall include each week any benefits were received due to fraud. The only exception to this is if the fraud occurred during the waiting week causing the next eligible week to become the new waiting week. In that case, the new waiting week will not be considered as a week of fraud for disqualification purposes. However, because the new waiting week is a non-payable week, any benefits received during that week will be assessed as an overpayment and because the overpayment was as a result of fraud, a fraud penalty will also be assessed.
(b) If a claimant commits a fraudulent act during one week, and benefits are paid in later weeks which would not have been paid but for the original fraud, each week wherein benefits were paid is a week of fraud subject to an overpayment determination, a penalty and a disqualification period.
(c) If the only week of fraud was the waiting week and no benefit payments were made, there will be no disqualification period.
(3) Disqualification Period.
(a) The claimant is ineligible for benefits for a period of 13 weeks for the first week of fraud. For each additional week of fraud, the claimant will be ineligible for benefits for an additional six weeks. The total number of weeks of disqualification will not exceed 49 weeks for each fraud determination. The Department will issue a fraud determination on all weeks of fraud the Department knows about at the time of the determination.
(b) The disqualification period begins the Sunday of the week the fraud determination is made.
(4) Overpayment and Penalty.
(a) For any fraud decision where the initial fraud determination was issued on or before June 30, 2004, the claimant shall repay to the division an overpayment which is equal to the amount of the benefits actually received. In addition, a claimant shall be required to repay, as a civil penalty, the amount of benefits received as a direct result of fraud. "Benefits actually received" means the benefits paid or constructively paid by the Department. Constructively paid refers to benefits used to reduce or off-set an overpayment, deducted at the request of the claimant to pay income taxes, or used as a payment to the Office of Recovery Services for child support obligations or other payments as required by law. For example: The claimant has a weekly benefit amount of $100 and reports no earnings during a week when he or she actually had $50 in reportable earnings. Because a claimant may earn up to 30% of his or her weekly benefit amount with no deduction, the claimant was entitled to receive $80 for that week and was thus overpaid the amount of $20. If the elements of fraud are established, the claimant is disqualified during that week of fraud and all benefits paid for that week are considered an overpayment. The claimant would also be liable to repay, as a civil penalty, the $20 received by direct reason of fraud. Therefore, in this example, the claimant would be liable for a total overpayment and penalty of $120, an amount that would have to be repaid in its entirety before the claimant would be eligible for any further waiting week credit or unemployment benefits. The claimant would also be subject to a 13-week penalty period.
(b) For all fraud decisions where the initial department determination is issued on or after July 1, 2004, the claimant shall repay to the division the overpayment and, as a civil penalty, an amount equal to the overpayment. The overpayment in this subparagraph is the amount of benefits the claimant received by direct reason of fraud. In the example in subsection (3)(a) of this section, the overpayment would be $20 and the penalty would be $20 for a total due of $40. The overpayment and penalty would have to be repaid in its entirety before the claimant would be eligible for any further waiting week credit or unemployment benefits. The claimant would also be subject to a 13-week penalty period.
(5) Additional Penalties. Criminal prosecution of fraud may be pursued as provided by Subsection 35A-4-104(1) in addition to the administrative penalties.
Fraud overpayments and penalties will be collected in accordance with rule R994-406-302 except that a warrant will always issue in fraud overpayments even if the claimant enters into an installment agreement and is current in the monthly payments. Fraud overpayments and penalties may also be collected by civil action or warrant as provided by Subsections 35A-4-305(3) and 35A-4-305(5), respectively. The Department may use unemployment insurance benefits payable for weeks prior to the penalty period to reduce overpayments and penalties.
A claimant is ineligible for unemployment benefits or waiting week credit after a disqualification for fraud until any overpayment and penalty established in conjunction with the disqualification has been satisfied in full. Wage credits earned by the claimant cannot be used to pay benefits or transferred to another state until the overpayment and penalty are satisfied. An outstanding overpayment or penalty may NOT be satisfied by deductions from benefit payments for weeks claimed after the disqualification period ends, as a claimant is precluded from receiving any future benefits or waiting week credit as long as there is an outstanding fraud overpayment. However, a claimant may be permitted to file a new claim to preserve a particular benefit year. An overpayment is considered satisfied as of the beginning of the week during which payment is received by the Department. Benefits will be allowed as of the effective date of the new claim if a claimant repays the overpayment and penalty within seven days of the date the notice of the outstanding overpayment and penalty is mailed.
If the division has sufficient evidence to assess a disqualification prior to paying benefits, but fails to take action, a fraud disqualification will not be assessed even if the claimant provided false or information or deliberate omissions. The resulting overpayment will be assessed under the provisions of Subsections 35A-4-406(4)(b) or 35A-4-406(5)(a).
overpayments, unemployment compensation
June 12, 2013
May 22, 2012
35A-4-406(2); 35A-4-406(3); 35A-4-406(4); 35A-4-406(5)
For questions regarding the content or application of rules under Title R994, please contact the promulgating agency (Workforce Services, Unemployment Insurance). A list of agencies with links to their homepages is available at http://www.utah.gov/government/agencylist.html or from http://www.rules.utah.gov/contact/agencycontacts.htm.